Life in 2050: A Glimpse at Space in the Future – Part I

By 2050, commercial space travel, space tourism, orbital space stations, and lunar habitats are likely to become a reality. and that’s not all..

Matthew S. Williams

Matthew S. Williams

Life in 2050: A Glimpse at Space in the Future – Part I

Gateway Foundation

Welcome back to our “Life in 2050” series. Our previous installments explored how the world of warfare , economics , and life at home  could drastically change by mid-century. For our fourth installment, we will be taking a look at what will be happening beyond Earth. This will include everything from Earth orbit to the very edge of the solar system… and beyond.

In the next three decades, human beings will enter the realm of space like never before. This is due in part to the way that public interest in space exploration has been revitalized, thanks to a number of exciting missions that have been mounted since the turn of the century and growing public engagement through social media. 

There’s also the way the commercial space sector (aka. NewSpace) has been growing by leaps and bounds. By leveraging new technologies and methods, various commercial entities have been reducing the costs of launching payloads to space. From this, they are providing less-expensive launch services and are even working towards offering flights to space.

Another major factor is the way that more national space agencies have become involved in the exploration of space. It’s no longer a race between two superpowers but a much more cooperative endeavor involving six major participants – the US, the European Union, Russia, China, Japan, and India – along with commercial partners and many smaller agencies.

By mid-century, things will progress further. More nations will join the “space club,” more space agencies will send astronauts to space, including to the Moon, and crewed missions to Mars will take place. Commercial entities will establish a permanent presence and will pursue many new kinds of space-related ventures.

space tourism in 2050

Between now and 2050, Earth’s orbital lanes will become a lot more crowded as the region known as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is further commercialized. A lot of this crowding will be from the constellations of CubeSats, broadband internet, and telecommunication satellites that will launch between now and then.

According to the ESA’s Space Debris Office (SDO), about 4,000 functioning satellites are currently in orbit. At the current rate at which new satellites are being added (around  990 per year ), it’s expected there will be 15,000 in orbit by 2028. Accounting for the rate of increase as satellites become smaller and cheaper to launch, it’s possible the number of satellites could reach hundreds of thousands in the next few decades.

Similarly, estimates on the total value of the space industry by 2050 are difficult to predict. However, reports issued in 2017 by Morgan Stanley and Bank of America Merrill Lynch  predict that the space industry will grow exponentially in the coming decades and reach a market value of $1.1 trillion by 2040 and almost $3 trillion by mid-century.

Between 1970 and 2000, the cost of launching payloads to space remained relatively steady. Using  NASA’s Space Shuttle , sending payloads to LEO cost around $25,000 per lb ($54,500 per kg). Today, it costs about $1,233 per lb ($2720 per kg) to send payloads to LEO using a Falcon 9 rocket, and $640 per lb ($1410 per kg) with a Falcon Heavy rocket – 20 to 40 times less.

As costs continue to plummet, space will become more accessible for both public and private organizations. This will also allow for the deployment of missions that were once considered too expensive, such as space-based solar power arrays. These satellites would gather solar energy 24/7 and beam it to ground stations using microwave arrays, providing cheap and abundant clean energy.

It’s also predicted that space habitats will become a normal feature in orbit by mid-century. Some are likely to be expandable space stations like the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM). Expandable habitats are smaller and lighter (hence, cheaper) to send to space, while the modular design allows for scalability – i.e., internal volume can be increased by adding more modules.

According to the 2019 SpaceWorks market forecast (9 th ed.), crewed space stations could be worth as much as $50B between 2030 and 2050 . There’s also the burgeoning industry of space tourism, which is projected to grow considerably in the next few decades. In this case, commercial launch providers will conduct suborbital or orbital flights for paying customers.

Some examples include SpaceX, which hopes to provide commercial transportation using their Starship launch vehicle for intercontinental flights. Richard Branson and Virgin Galactic have spent over a decade developing the SpaceShipTwo rocket plane to fly passengers to space. Branson has also expressed interest in providing flights to orbit in the coming years – specifically to the ISS .

Blue Origin is also offering flights to suborbital altitudes in the near future, using the reusable New Shepard rocket. Once the New Glenn rocket is up and running, these services are likely to extend all the way to orbit. There have even been hints and intimations that flights to the Moon will be possible in the coming decades (more on that below).

Spaceplanes are also destined to become a common feature, used for both suborbital flights and flights to space. Examples today include Sierra Nevada Corp’s Dream Chaser , the X-37B autonomous spaceplane, and the Reusable Experimental Spacecraft (Shǐyòng Shìyàn Hángtiān Qì) – China’s answer to the X-37B.

In due course, China’s Shenlong reusable robotic spaceplane will be added to the mix, as will the Skylon spaceplane currently being developed by Reaction Engines in the UK. These vehicles will provide cost-effective launch services for small payloads to orbit, as well as commercial crew missions to orbiting stations and habitats.

Gateways to space

Barring any further extensions, the International Space Station (ISS) is due to retire around 2024. Given the immense benefits that the ISS has provided during its many decades of service, it won’ t be long before this vacuum is filled. China launched the first module of its Tiangong Space Station (Tiangong-3) in April of 2021, which will be followed by two more next year.

Russia also has plans to build its own space station  after 2024, incumbent upon its exit from the ISS Program. According to a statement issued on April 12 th , 2021, to mark the 60 th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin’s historic flight, Russia would be pursuing a new space strategy over the next decade (2025-2035).

Shortly thereafter, Dmitry Rogozin – Chief of the Russian space agency (Roscosmos) – stated that “[t]he first core module of the new Russian orbital station is in the works.” Other details included that it was Russian space corporation Energia that was building the module and that it would be “ready for launch” by 2025.

By 2050, these stations are likely to have long-since retired and served as the stepping stones towards larger and more advanced stations. Some notable features, which will help ensure humanity’s long-term presence in orbit, will include rotating pinwheel designs, 3D printers, refueling stations, and autonomous robotic arms (for docking and departure).

To get a sneak-peak of what these stations would look like, consider NASA’s Nautilus-X rotating torus concept. Presently, NASA is still investigating the possibility of attaching a torus to the ISS to validate the effectiveness of simulated gravity. Similar torii could be integrated into spaceships for the sake of ensuring astronaut health during long-duration flights.

There is also the Gateway Foundation ‘s proposal for a commercial pinwheel station in orbit that would facilitate the commercialization of LEO and crewed missions to the Moon and Mars. The design of the Gateway calls for an inner and outer torus section, the innermost simulated lunar gravity (0.165 g), and the outermost simulating Martian gravity (0.38 g ).

To realize the construction of this space station, the Gateway Foundation established the Orbital Assembly Corporation (OAC) – the world’s first large-scale orbital construction company. In the coming years, they will be joined by many other ventures, all of which are sure to rely on 3D printing and robotic assemblers in orbit to build facilities rapidly and cheaply.

By 2050, multiple pinwheel space stations – or other concepts that use rotating sections to simulate gravity – could exist in Earth orbit. These stations will serve as gateways, allowing for regular trips to the Moon and other locations in deep space.

To the Moon (to stay)

By 2024, NASA intends to send the “first woman and next man” to the Moon as part of the Artemis Program . Beyond this, NASA plans to deploy key pieces of infrastructure that will allow for a “sustained program of lunar exploration.” In short, NASA plans to go beyond “footprints and flags” (the Apollo Program) with Artemis and establish a permanent human presence on the Moon.

The first missions in the program – Artemis I (Nov. 4th, 2021) and Artemis II (Aug 2023) – will consist of two circumlunar flights (one uncrewed and one crewed) designed to test the SLS and Orio n. Artemis III, the first crewed mission to the lunar surface since 1972, will follow in October of 2024 using a Human Landing System (HLS) developed by SpaceX (subject to legal challenge).

Also scheduled for 2024 is the launch of the Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) and the Habitation and Logistics Outpost (HALO), which are the core elements of the Lunar Gateway . Paired with a reusable lunar lander, this orbital habitat will allow for long-duration missions to the lunar surface.

Between 2024 and 2030, NASA plans to mount six more missions (Artemis IV through IX) that will add elements to the Gateway. This will include the International Habitation Module (I-HAB), the European System Providing Refueling, Infrastructure and Telecommunications (ESPRIT), and possibly more.

Similarly, NASA is planning on constructing a facility in the Moon’s South-Pole Aitken Basin to enable long-term missions – the Artemis Base Camp . Similar plans have been proposed by the European Space Agency (ESA), which has been talking about creating an International Moon Village in the same region for years.

This base would act as a spiritual successor to the ISS and would have rotating crews of astronauts from all participant agencies – like the ESA, NASA, JAXA, and possibly China and Russia. Meanwhile, Russia and China recently announced that they would be partnering to create their own lunar station to rival NASA’s facilities.

Known as the International Scientific Lunar Station (ISLS), this lunar base could constitute an orbital habitat (like the Gateway) or a surface base. According to a statement issued (in Mandarin) by the China National Space Administration (CNSA):

“The ILRS is a comprehensive scientific experiment base with the capability of long-term autonomous operation, built on the lunar surface and/or [in] lunar orbit that will carry out multi-disciplinary and multi-objective scientific research activities such as lunar exploration and utilization, lunar-based observation, basic scientific experiments, and technical verification.”

Several commercial space companies have been contracted to send payloads to the Moon through NASA’s Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS). Beyond that, there are a number of companies that are looking to conduct their own lunar missions. This includes SpaceX, which plans on using the Starship to fly a crew of artists around the Moon in 2023 – the #dearMoon  project. 

In 2016, Blue Origin founder Jeff Bezos indicated that his company would develop a heavy-launch rocket for lunar missions – the New Armstrong . Blue Origin is also developing a lunar lander known as Blue Moon , which would be capable of sending cargo and crews to the Moon.

Using these systems, Musk and Bezos hope to offer launch and transportation services to the Moon. Both men have also indicated that lunar facilities would be a “ logical next step for humanity ” as well. While the timelines on this are not yet clear, both intend to take major steps during this decade and the next.

By 2050, it is entirely possible that these efforts will have given rise to a thriving “lunar tourism” industry. This could take the form of week-long travel packages that people would book in advance, staying in company facilities on the surface, and conducting “moonwalks” before returning home.

While only the super-wealthy will be able to afford these services initially, the associated costs will decline over time as lunar tourism became an established industry. As Robert A. Heinlein famously put it in  The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress , “There Ain’t No Such Thing As A Free Lunch” (aka. “TANSTAAFL!”).

Another commercial lunar activity that is expected to become a reality is lunar mining. Human exploration in the near future will be responsible for scouting out resources, which include water ice, minerals, and Helium-3 for fuel. As a consequence, the exploitation of lunar resources could become a major commercial venture and export market.

In accordance with the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, any and all bodies in space are to remain free of any national appropriation of sovereignty. This means that no one can lay claim to land on the Moon or in space, not as long as they are a state actor. However, the treaty does not specifically forbid private companies from laying claim to bodies or any resources extracted. The “Moon Agreement,” which was ratified in 1984,  provides that the Moon and its natural resources are the common heritage of “mankind” and that an international regime should be established to govern the exploitation of such resources when such exploitation is about to become feasible.

While the legality of lunar mining has always been unclear and controversial, the issue was simplified somewhat in 2015 with the signing of the Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act into law. This was followed by the executive order signed by President Trump in April of 2020 , which legalized prospecting and harvesting resources from space.

space tourism in 2050

Industry in Earth-Moon space

The legalities of lunar mining raise another controversial subject, which is the near-future possibility of asteroid mining. In accordance with the Outer Space Treaty, asteroids are also exempt from national appropriation. But in recent years, many companies have emerged with the intent of prospecting Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and extracting resources from them.

Asteroids designated as NEAs are those whose orbits bring them within 1.3 Astronomical Units (AU) – or 120.8 million miles (194.4 million km) – of Earth. The majority of these objects originated in the Main Asteroid Belt and were kicked out of their orbits either because of collisions with other asteroids or due to the gravitational influence of Jupiter.

These asteroids fall into one of three broad categories based on their composition. They are:

C-type (chondrite): the most common type of asteroid, composed largely of clay and silicate rocks. These asteroids are dark in appearance and are the most ancient objects in the Solar System.

S-type (“stony”): these asteroids are similar in composition to rocky planets, consisting of outer layers of silicate minerals and nickel-iron closer to the center.

The M-types (“metallic”): these asteroids are mainly made up of iron-nickel, which can become differentiated between a denser core and lighter outer layers. In some cases, they experience lava flows where molten metal erupts onto the surface.

As of September 2016, there are 711 known NEAs with an estimated value exceeding $100 trillion USD. Whereas critics have noted that these estimates fail to take into account the actual profit margins (value of ore minus the associated expenses), the situation has changed drastically in recent years.

Thanks to the declining cost of sending payloads and crews to space, we are nearing the point where asteroid mining would be profitable. When paired with a robust spacecraft-building and servicing industry in orbit, asteroid mining is likely to reach beyond profitability and become an extremely lucrative industry.

In time, the Earth-Moon system could also include a Space Elevator , an orbital space platform tethered to Earth’s surface and kept rigid through a counterweight and the planet’s rotation. Alternately, humanity may realize a Lunar Elevator, a similar structure tethered to the Moon and extending inward towards Earth (kept rigid by Earth’s gravity well).

For engineers, the stumbling block that has always made the concept sound in theory (but impossible to realize) has been the tether itself. Prior to the creation of carbon nanotubes and graphene, no known material was even close to having the tensile strength required. In time, further advances in materials science are likely to lead to a breakthrough in this area.

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One of the major benefits of a Space Elevator would be the way it drastically lowers the cost of sending payloads to space. According to The Spaceward Foundation , current space elevator proposals will be able to lift payloads to LEO at a starting cost of around $100 per lb ($220 per kg). With costs like that, it will be possible to commercialize the entire Earth-Moon system.

And that’s not all! Beyond Earth and the Moon, humanity will be taking some very big steps in the coming decades. With crewed missions to Mars, robotic missions to the outer solar system, next-generation space telescopes, and even the first interstellar missions, space will truly become the “final frontier” – and in more ways than one.

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ABOUT THE EDITOR

Matthew S. Williams Matthew S Williams is an author, a writer for Universe Today, and the curator of their Guide to Space section. His works include sci-fi/mystery The Cronian Incident and his articles have been featured in Phys.org, HeroX, Popular Mechanics, Business Insider, Gizmodo, and IO9, ScienceAlert, Knowridge Science Report, and Real Clear Science, with topics ranging from astronomy and Earth sciences to technological innovation and environmental issues. He is also a former educator and a 5th degree Black Belt Tae Kwon Do instructor. He lives on Vancouver Island with his wife and family.  

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The Future of Space Tourism Is Now. Well, Not Quite.

From zero-pressure balloon trips to astronaut boot camps, reservations for getting off the planet — or pretending to — are skyrocketing. The prices, however, are still out of this world.

space tourism in 2050

By Debra Kamin

Ilida Alvarez has dreamed of traveling to space since she was a child. But Ms. Alvarez, a legal-mediation firm owner, is afraid of flying, and she isn’t a billionaire — two facts that she was sure, until just a few weeks ago, would keep her fantasy as out of reach as the stars. She was wrong.

Ms. Alvarez, 46, and her husband, Rafael Landestoy, recently booked a flight on a 10-person pressurized capsule that — attached to a massive helium-filled balloon — will gently float to 100,000 feet while passengers sip champagne and recline in ergonomic chairs. The reservation required a $500 deposit; the flight itself will cost $50,000 and last six to 12 hours.

“I feel like it was tailor-made for the chickens like me who don’t want to get on a rocket,” said Ms. Alvarez, whose flight, organized by a company called World View , is scheduled to depart from the Grand Canyon in 2024.

Less than a year after Jeff Bezos and Richard Branson kicked off a commercial space race by blasting into the upper atmosphere within weeks of each other last summer, the global space tourism market is skyrocketing, with dozens of companies now offering reservations for everything from zero-pressure balloon trips to astronaut boot camps and simulated zero-gravity flights. But don’t don your spacesuit just yet. While the financial services company UBS estimates the space travel market will be worth $3 billion by 2030, the Federal Aviation Administration has yet to approve most out-of-this-world trips, and construction has not started on the first space hotel. And while access and options — not to mention launchpads — are burgeoning, space tourism remains astronomically expensive for most.

First, what counts as space travel?

Sixty miles (about 100 kilometers) above our heads lies the Kármán line, the widely accepted aeronautical boundary of the earth’s atmosphere. It’s the boundary used by the Féderátion Aéronautique Internationale, which certifies and controls global astronautical records. But many organizations in the United States, including the F.A.A. and NASA, define everything above 50 miles to be space.

Much of the attention has been focused on a trio of billionaire-led rocket companies: Mr. Bezos’ Blue Origin , whose passengers have included William Shatner; Mr. Branson’s Virgin Galactic , where tickets for a suborbital spaceflight start at $450,000; and Elon Musk’s SpaceX , which in September launched an all-civilian spaceflight, with no trained astronauts on board. Mr. Branson’s inaugural Virgin Galactic flight in 2021 reached about 53 miles, while Blue Origin flies above the 62-mile mark. Both are eclipsed by SpaceX, whose rockets charge far deeper in to the cosmos, reaching more than 120 miles above Earth.

Balloons, like those operated by World View, don’t go nearly as high. But even at their maximum altitude of 18 or 19 miles, operators say they float high enough to show travelers the curvature of the planet, and give them a chance to experience the overview effect — an intense perspective shift that many astronauts say kicks in when you view Earth from above.

Now, how to get there …

Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic, which are both licensed for passenger space travel by the F.A.A., are open for ticket sales. (Blue Origin remains mum on pricing.) Both companies currently have hundreds or even thousands of earthlings on their wait lists for a whirl to the edge of space. SpaceX charges tens of millions of dollars for its further-reaching flights and is building a new facility in Texas that is currently under F.A.A. review.

Craig Curran is a major space enthusiast — he’s held a reserved seat on a Virgin Galactic flight since 2011 — and the owner of Deprez Travel in Rochester, N.Y. The travel agency has a special space travel arm, Galactic Experiences by Deprez , through which Mr. Curran sells everything from rocket launch tickets to astronaut training.

Sales in the space tourism space, Mr. Curran acknowledges, “are reasonably difficult to make,” and mostly come from peer-to-peer networking. “You can imagine that people who spend $450,000 to go to space probably operate in circles that are not the same as yours and mine,” he said.

Some of Mr. Curran’s most popular offerings include flights where you can experience the same stomach-dropping feeling of zero gravity that astronauts feel in space, which he arranges for clients via chartered, specialized Boeing 727s that are flown in parabolic arcs to mimic being in space. Operators including Zero G also offer the service; the cost is around $8,200.

You can almost count the number of completed space tourist launches on one hand — Blue Origin has had four; SpaceX, two. Virgin Galactic, meanwhile, on Thursday announced the launch of its commercial passenger service, previously scheduled for late 2022, was delayed until early 2023. Many of those on waiting lists are biding their time before blastoff by signing up for training. Axiom Space, which contracts with SpaceX, currently offers NASA-partnered training at Houston’s Johnson Space Center. Virgin Galactic, which already offers a “customized Future Astronaut Readiness program” at its Spaceport America facility in New Mexico, is also partnering with NASA to build a training program for private astronauts.

Would-be space tourists should not expect the rigor that NASA astronauts face. Training for Virgin Galactic’s three-hour trips is included in the cost of a ticket and lasts a handful of days; it includes pilot briefings and being “fitted for your bespoke Under Armour spacesuit and boots,” according to its website.

Not ready for a rocket? Balloon rides offer a less hair-raising celestial experience.

“We go to space at 12 miles an hour, which means that it’s very smooth and very gentle. You’re not rocketing away from earth,” said Jane Poynter, a co-founder and co-chief executive of Space Perspective , which is readying its own touristic balloon spaceship, Spaceship Neptune. If all goes according to plan, voyages are scheduled to begin departing from Florida in 2024, at a cost of $125,000 per person. That’s a fraction of the price tag for Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic, but still more than double the average annual salary of an American worker.

Neither Space Perspective nor World View has the required approval yet from the F.A.A. to operate flights.

Unique implications

Whether a capsule or a rocket is your transport, the travel insurance company battleface launched a civilian space insurance plan in late 2021, a direct response, said chief executive Sasha Gainullin, to an increase in space tourism interest and infrastructure. Benefits include accidental death and permanent disablement in space and are valid for spaceflights on operators like SpaceX, Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic, as well as on stratospheric balloon rides. They’ve had many inquiries, Mr. Gainullin said, but no purchases just yet.

“Right now it’s such high-net-worth individuals who are traveling to space, so they probably don’t need insurance,” he said. “But for quote-unquote regular travelers, I think we’ll see some takeups soon.”

And as the industry grows, so perhaps will space travel’s impact on the environment. Not only do rocket launches have immense carbon footprints, even some stratospheric balloon flights have potentially significant implications: World View’s balloons are powered by thousands of cubic meters of helium, which is a limited resource . But Ted Parson, a professor of environmental law at the University of California, Los Angeles, said that space travel’s environmental impact is still dwarfed by civil aviation. And because space travel is ultra-niche, he believes it’s likely to stay that way.

“Despite extensive projections, space tourism is likely to remain a tiny fraction of commercial space exploration,” he said. “It reminds me of tourism on Mt. Everest. It’s the indulgence of very rich people seeking a transcendent, once-in-a-lifetime experience, and the local environmental burden is intense.”

Stay a while?

In the future, space enthusiasts insist, travelers won’t be traveling to space just for the ride. They’ll want to stay a while. Orbital Assembly Corporation, a manufacturing company whose goal is to colonize space, is currently building the world’s first space hotels — two ring-shaped properties that will orbit Earth, called Pioneer Station and Voyager Station. The company, quite optimistically, projects an opening date of 2025 for Pioneer Station, with a capacity of 28 guests. The design for the larger Voyager Station , which they say will open in 2027, promises villas and suites, as well as a gym, restaurant and bar. Both provide the ultimate luxury: simulated gravity. Axiom Space , a space infrastructure company, is currently building the world’s first private space station; plans include Philippe Starck-designed accommodations for travelers to spend the night.

Joshua Bush, chief executive of travel agency Avenue Two Travel , has sold a handful of seats on upcoming Virgin Galactic flights to customers. The market for space travel (and the sky-high prices that come with it), he believes, will evolve much like civilian air travel did.

“In the beginning of the 20th century, only very affluent people could afford to fly,” he said. “Just as we have Spirit and Southwest Airlines today, there will be some sort of equivalent of that in space travel, too. Hopefully within my lifetime.”

space tourism in 2050

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Want to be a space tourist? Here are 6 things to consider first

Astronaut Buzz Aldrin participated in an Apollo 11 Extravehicular Activity on the lunar surface.

The industry of space tourism could exist in the future. Image:  Unsplash/NASA

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space tourism in 2050

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Stay up to date:.

  • In July 2021, entrepreneur Sir Richard Branson and Amazon founder Jeff Bezos went up into space, accompanied by fellow passengers.
  • These trips created vast amounts of media coverage and brand recognition for Branson’s Virgin Galactic and Bezos’ Blue Origin.
  • This could indicate that a commercial space tourism industry is on the horizon.
  • Before space trips become commercially available, important factors such as environmental and safety laws need to be considered.

It’s been a momentous month for space-faring billionaires. On July 11, British entrepreneur Sir Richard Branson’s Unity “rocket-plane” flew him and five fellow passengers about 85 kilometres above Earth. And this week, Amazon founder Jeff Bezos’ New Shepard capsule reached an altitude of 106km , carrying Bezos, his brother, and the oldest and youngest people ever to reach such a height. Passengers on both flights experienced several minutes of weightlessness and took in breathtaking views of our beautiful and fragile Earth.

Both flights created an avalanche of media coverage and brand recognition for Branson’s Virgin Galactic and Bezos’s Blue Origin. There is renewed anticipation of a lucrative commercial space tourism industry that could eventually see thousands of paying passengers journey into space (or not quite into space, depending on your preferred level of pedantry).

This year marks 60 years since Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space. Since then, almost 600 trained astronauts have gone into outer space, but very few people have become space tourists.

The first, US engineer Dennis Tito, paid a reported US$20 million to spend six days orbiting Earth in the Russian section of the International Space Station in April 2001, after three months’ training at Russia’s Star City complex. He was followed by a handful of other very wealthy “orbital tourists”, most recently Cirque de Soleil founder Guy Laliberté in 2009, whose ticket reportedly cost US$35 million.

Unlike their predecessors, Branson’s and Bezos’ flights were suborbital – they didn’t reach the velocity needed to orbit Earth. Bezos’s entire flight lasted just over 10 minutes. Suborbital flights are much less technically complex, and in theory cheaper (although one seat on the New Shepard flight was auctioned for US$28 million ).

The luxurious interior of Bezos’ Blue Origin

While they might quibble over billionaire bragging rights, there’s no denying that suborbital “space” flights have the potential to be less eye-wateringly expensive than going into orbital outer space and beyond.

But before you sign up – assuming you’re lucky enough to afford it – here are a few things to consider.

Where does space start, anyway?

Have you read, how many space launches does it take to have a serious climate impact, from space squid to saliva: what's inside nasa's cargo missions and why, the big space clean-up - and why it matters.

Despite assertions to the contrary , there is no legal definition of “outer space”, and thus no official boundary where airspace ends and outer space begins. In the past, the International Aeronautical Federation has looked to the von Karman line , but this does not coincide with the boundary of any of the atmosphere’s scientifically defined layers, and the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space , which deals with such issues, has not yet resolved the question.

Conveniently for Branson, 80km has been proposed by some experts as an appropriate boundary.

Outer space is undeniably influenced by Earthly geopolitics. Essentially, the larger space-faring countries see no need to legally define a boundary that would clearly demarcate the upper limits of their sovereignty.

Will you be an ‘astronaut’?

The 1967 UN Outer Space Treaty designates astronauts as “envoys of (hu)mankind in outer space”. Certainly, that seemed to be the case as the world watched the historic Apollo 11 Moon landing and prayed for a safe return of the stricken Apollo 13 capsule. However, the 1968 UN Rescue Agreement refers to “personnel of a spacecraft”, which may imply not everyone on board should be considered a fully fledged astronaut.

Of course, these legal niceties won’t deter space tourism companies from awarding “astronaut wings” to their passengers.

this is Richard Branson inside a space craft

What laws apply when things go wrong?

The 1986 Challenger and 2003 Columbia shuttle disasters are stark reminders of the dangers of space travel. Human space travel has always involved determining acceptable levels of risk for trained astronauts. But commercial space tourism is different to state-sponsored space programs, and will need the highest possible safety standards.

Commercial space travel will also require a system of responsibility and liability, for cases in which a space tourist suffers injury, loss or damage.

Space tourists (or their families) can’t claim for compensation under the 1972 UN Liability Convention which, in terms of space, applies only to collisions between space objects such as satellites and space debris. While there may be scope to take legal action under national laws, it is likely space tourists will be asked to sign carefully worded waivers of liability.

The same is probably true of international air law , which applies to “aircraft” — a designation space tourism operators will understandably be keen to avoid.

Ultimately, we may need to develop a system of “aerospace law” to govern these suborbital flights as well as “transorbital” transport such as the keenly envisaged flights that might one day take passengers from Sydney to London in just a few hours.

What activities should be allowed in space?

The advent of space tourism will give rise to some interesting ethical questions. Should there be advertising billboards in space? What about casinos, or brothels? On what legal basis should these things be restricted?

How does tourism fit with the underlying philosophy of space law: that the exploration and use of outer space “shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries”?

Will space tourism harm the environment?

Space tourism will inevitably put pressure on Earth’s environment – there are claims that space vehicles may one day become the world’s biggest source of carbon dioxide emissions. We will need to manage space traffic carefully to avoid disastrous collisions and steer clear of space debris .

If tourists go to the Moon, they may cause pollution or damage the heritage of earlier exploration, such as Neil Armstrong’s footprints .

this is Neil Armstrong's preserved footprint, which could be damaged if tourists go to the moon

Will tourism workers have to live in space?

If space tourism does become truly widespread, it will need infrastructure and perhaps even staff. People may end up living permanently in space settlements, perhaps having children who will be born as “space citizens”. What legal rights would someone have if they were born at a Moon base? Would they be subject to terrestrial laws, or some version of current international legal rules for outer space?

The World Economic Forum was the first to draw the world’s attention to the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the current period of unprecedented change driven by rapid technological advances. Policies, norms and regulations have not been able to keep up with the pace of innovation, creating a growing need to fill this gap.

The Forum established the Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution Network in 2017 to ensure that new and emerging technologies will help—not harm—humanity in the future. Headquartered in San Francisco, the network launched centres in China, India and Japan in 2018 and is rapidly establishing locally-run Affiliate Centres in many countries around the world.

The global network is working closely with partners from government, business, academia and civil society to co-design and pilot agile frameworks for governing new and emerging technologies, including artificial intelligence (AI) , autonomous vehicles , blockchain , data policy , digital trade , drones , internet of things (IoT) , precision medicine and environmental innovations .

Learn more about the groundbreaking work that the Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution Network is doing to prepare us for the future.

Want to help us shape the Fourth Industrial Revolution? Contact us to find out how you can become a member or partner.

These are obviously questions for the future. But given the excitement generated by the brief journeys of a couple of wealthy entrepreneurs, we should start contemplating them now. Outer space is the new frontier, but it is not — and must not — be a lawless one.

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Expert Voices

The future of space tourism: op-ed

Virgin Galactic's first test passenger Beth Moses looks out the window of the VSS Unity during a test flight with pilots Dave Mackay and Michael "Sooch" Masucci, on Feb. 22, 2018.

Dylan Taylor is a global entrepreneur, investor and philanthropist who acts as the Chairman and CEO of Voyager Space Holdings and the founder of Space for Humanity , a nonprofit organization that seeks to democratize space exploration. He has also served as an active advocate and philanthropist in the space manufacturing industry and a strategic advisor for the Archmission and the Human Spaceflight Program while also acting as the co-founding patron of the Commercial Spaceflight Federation. He contributed this article to Space.com's Expert Voices: Opinions and Insights .

It's true that 2020 spawned a collective feeling of retreat coupled with a FOMO (fear of missing out) that inspires us to escape a chaotic world. For now, we have the silence of nature or an eventual trip abroad, but the future can provide a more adventurous escape: one to the stars.

Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo interior features six sleek passenger seats, a wealth of windows and room to float about the cabin.

The NewSpace industry has its sights set on space tourism , a growing market expected to be worth at least $3 billion by 2030 . As companies like SpaceX test reusable rocket technology to make spaceflight more affordable and accessible for humans, other private firms, including Virgin Galactic and Blue Origin, are investing in suborbital space tourism to take Earthlings into the very edge of space and back. While only uber-wealthy passengers and private researchers will have access to space tourism in the immediate future, the long term holds promises for ordinary citizens.

The evolution of technology plays a vital role in sending more tourists to space and a few influential trends will determine the future of space tourism, along with the progress we make both on and off our home planet.

Related: Space tourists will face big risks, as private companies gear up for paid suborbital flights

Commercial suborbital trips

Suborbital travel will likely be the space tourism subsector to materialize first, but it may also be the most short-lived. However, Blue Origin , backed by Jeff Bezos, is testing its New Shepard system that will launch customers to the edge of space in a capsule which separates from a small rocket and retreats back to Earth under parachutes. Richard Branson's company Virgin Galactic relies on a space plane, dropped from a carrier aircraft, with a rocket motor that speeds up and takes passengers high into the atmosphere.

Both companies' shuttle systems are designed to fly passengers over 50 miles above Earth's atmosphere, allowing customers to experience the feeling of weightlessness for a few minutes. Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo will launch its next human spaceflight test on Dec. 11 as Blue Origin eyes early 2021.

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These brief spaceflights hold opportunities for tourism and scientific research and present unique experiences for space observation at varying trajectories and regulatory requirements. However, Axios reports concerns over declined public interest in suborbital tourism as a passing interest due to high costs and a short-lived ride. This may deflate the market as passengers await new developments in the field.

But there's some hope. Some experts look to commercial suborbital trips to take the place of long-distance air travel that can eventually cater to everyday citizens. SpaceX plans to use its Starship rocket to fly 100 people around the world in mere minutes. The company stated that a 15-hour flight to Shanghai from New York would be capable of flying in 39 minutes. According to UBS, if even only 5% of the average 150 million passengers that travel on 10 hour or longer flights pay $2,500 per trip, then returns could skyrocket to $20 billion per year in today's value.

A recent UBS report mentions, "Space tourism could be the stepping stone for the development of long-haul travel on earth serviced by space."

Related: Virgin Galactic wants to send people on superfast trips across Earth  

Dylan Taylor, founder of Space for Humanity and CEO of Voyager Space Holdings.

Orbital vacations

Orbital tourism, which entails remaining in space for at least one full orbit, is another major focus of governmental agencies and private space companies, all of which have the long-term goal to inhabit the moon and Mars. Projects from Boeing, SpaceX and Axiom Space plan to start launching tourists to the International Space Station on commercial spacecraft beginning as early as this year. SpaceX is also partnering with Space Adventures to send four tourists to low Earth orbit for a few days in late 2021 or early 2022.

As more companies consider in-space tourism, orbital vacations are set to become a popular trend. Orbital vacationing infrastructure, including orbital and lunar-based hotels, is positioned to become lucrative as space infrastructure companies already hauled in a combined $3.6 billion so far this year . 

Much of this infrastructure remains in preliminary stages, but the first approach may be to establish low-orbit hotels. One hotel design expects to send guests in a hydrogen-filled balloon with a pressurized capsule, utilizing Earth's gravity. Other options include designing or renovating an existing space station to accommodate guests. NASA, for instance, is opening up the International Space Station for commercial tourism . The Aurora Station , a planned luxury hotel that will host six guests for a $9.5 million, 12-day stay in low Earth orbit, will charge $9.5 million for the trip. It's pricey, but experts predict prices will fall like they did in the tech industry for computers and mobile phones.

A proposal for expandable space habitats may also serve as orbital hotels. Made of unique materials and easily stored at home, they are launched to space where they're inflated to true size. Bigelow Space invented the B330 , a space habitat that enlarges to form a hotel or living area for humans in space. As demand increases, they are interconnected to other inflatable habitats to increase their size. Bigelow also plans to develop an attached inflated module to the International Space Station as one of the first hotels in space. In-space vacations will eventually be the gateway for moon and Mars habitation.

Nurturing the space and world economies

Private space companies are devotedly investing across space tourism and firms like UBS consider access to space an enabler to broader opportunities for investment.

More next-generation engineers will enter the space tourism sector for the scope of opportunities and innovation, eventually decreasing the barriers to entry that will increase competition, lower costs, and ultimately democratize space travel for everyday citizens. 

Of course, there are crucial safety, comfort and health factors to consider. Training, medical screenings and liability waivers will need to be examined before tourists head to space. 

Space tourism will be a small subsector of the industry, but it will bolster the entire NewSpace industry. Once space tourism does become mainstream, it will also positively impact many socioeconomic factors on Earth: creating jobs, educating citizens about space and fostering a new solar-based energy infrastructure. The sweet escape to the stars can eventually awaken us to the awe-inspiring potential of space exploration while also giving us a better appreciation of home.

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17 ways technology will change our lives by 2050

Regulation, rather than the technology, is more of a limiting factor for getting delivery drones off the ground. But Pearson said by 2018, drones will be used to deliver things like packages to hospitals. 

But he doesn\'t see delivery drones being allowed to become too widespread. It may be used for some package delivery, but not everyday activities like pizza delivery, he said.

We could start seeing delivery drones finally start making deliveries in the next two years.

space tourism in 2050

But he doesn't see delivery drones being allowed to become too widespread. It may be used for some package delivery, but not everyday activities like pizza delivery, he said.

Regulation, rather than the technology, is more of a limiting factor for getting delivery drones off the ground. But Pearson said by 2018, drones will be used to deliver things like packages to hospitals. 

We already know we\'re getting closer to seeing a Hyperloop, a high-speed propulsion system, after seeing the first test run by start-up Hyperloop One in May. Hyperloop One has actually partnered with the City of Moscow to bring one to Russia .

Pearson said he expects to see a short-range Hyperloop that transports people between two cities in five to six years time.

A Hyperloop could take us in between cities in just six years.

A Hyperloop could take us in between cities in just six years.

We already know we're getting closer to seeing a Hyperloop, a high-speed propulsion system, after seeing the first test run by start-up Hyperloop One in May. Hyperloop One has actually partnered with the City of Moscow to bring one to Russia .

Pearson said he thinks it\'s very feasible that computers could gain consciousness by 2025, perhaps even earlier in 2020. 

"Google\'s DeepMind isn\'t there yet, but really I\'m sure they\'ll probably discover those things along the way, and by 2020, it\'s possible their computer could be superhuman and could be conscious," he said. "That could be the beginning of the end, really."

Machines could start thinking like humans as early as 2025.

Machines could start thinking like humans as early as 2025.

Pearson said he thinks it's very feasible that computers could gain consciousness by 2025, perhaps even earlier in 2020. 

"Google's DeepMind isn't there yet, but really I'm sure they'll probably discover those things along the way, and by 2020, it's possible their computer could be superhuman and could be conscious," he said. "That could be the beginning of the end, really."

Pearson said he thinks it's very feasible that computers could gain consciousness by 2025, perhaps even earlier in 2020. 

"Google's DeepMind isn't there yet, but really I'm sure they'll probably discover those things along the way, and by 2020, it's possible their computer could be superhuman and could be conscious," he said. "That could be the beginning of the end, really."

That prediction actually gives Musk some leeway in realizing his vision of getting people to Mars. Musk said at Vox\'s Code Conference in June said he plans to send astronauts to the red planet in 2024 so they get there by 2025.

"We will see first people going off to mars, and then robots will do some basic stuff like making basic materials [on Mars,]" Pearson said. "We\'re going to have to do that because only so much can be brought to space."

Space trips designed to send people to Mars could start taking place in 2030.

Space trips designed to send people to Mars could start taking place in 2030.

That prediction actually gives Musk some leeway in realizing his vision of getting people to Mars. Musk said at Vox's Code Conference in June said he plans to send astronauts to the red planet in 2024 so they get there by 2025.

"We will see first people going off to mars, and then robots will do some basic stuff like making basic materials [on Mars,]" Pearson said. "We're going to have to do that because only so much can be brought to space."

"We will see first people going off to mars, and then robots will do some basic stuff like making basic materials [on Mars,]" Pearson said. "We're going to have to do that because only so much can be brought to space."

We\'ve started seeing people use advanced prosthetics already. James Young, a 25-year-old biological scientist, has a prosthetic arm with a personal drone and built-in flashlight. And a French artist is using a prosthetic that doubles as a tattoo gun .

Pearson said prosthetics will continue to get more advanced to the point where people are fully comfortable with technology merging with the body. For example, he said people could choose to get cybernetic implants in their legs to make them stronger. 

Prosthetics could get so advanced in the next 10 years they could give people new skills.

Prosthetics could get so advanced in the next 10 years they could give people new skills.

We've started seeing people use advanced prosthetics already. James Young, a 25-year-old biological scientist, has a prosthetic arm with a personal drone and built-in flashlight. And a French artist is using a prosthetic that doubles as a tattoo gun .

Pearson said prosthetics will continue to get more advanced to the point where people are fully comfortable with technology merging with the body. For example, he said people could choose to get cybernetic implants in their legs to make them stronger. 

The most obvious example of this is the exoskeleton suit, Pearson said. Hyundai recently created an exoskeleton suit that can make heavy lifting easier.

But Pearson said he can also envision other kinds of advanced clothing, like leggings that make it easier to walk and run. Or a Spiderman-like suit made with Polymer gels that can improve strength.

Clothing could give people superhuman skills in the next 10 years.

Clothing could give people superhuman skills in the next 10 years.

"You could take students to an environment in the past and show them what was happening, like watching a battle taking place," Pearson said. "You can explain that sort of thing more easily if they can see it happening, than if you are looking at a textbook."

Google\'s Expedition App  already lets students take trips in VR to places like the Great Barrier Reef. The app first launched in beta form in September.

Virtual reality could replace textbooks during the next decade.

Virtual reality could replace textbooks during the next decade.

Google's Expedition App  already lets students take trips in VR to places like the Great Barrier Reef. The app first launched in beta form in September.

"You could take students to an environment in the past and show them what was happening, like watching a battle taking place," Pearson said. "You can explain that sort of thing more easily if they can see it happening, than if you are looking at a textbook."

Google's Expedition App  already lets students take trips in VR to places like the Great Barrier Reef. The app first launched in beta form in September.

Pearson said by 2025 smartphones will be rendered obsolete thanks to advancements in augmented reality.

"If it\'s 2025 and you have a smartphone, people will laugh at you," he said. 

It will be possible to pull up screens in AR via a tiny bracelet or other piece of jewelry in the next 10 years, making it unnecessary to carry around a smartphone. Companies like Magic Leap are working to bring AR into the mainstream.

The smartphone will become obsolete by 2025.

The smartphone will become obsolete by 2025.

"If it's 2025 and you have a smartphone, people will laugh at you," he said. 

"If it's 2025 and you have a smartphone, people will laugh at you," he said. 

Whether that comes in the form of a car is up for debate, Pearson said.

Pearson described a ride-sharing system where people would order "cheap steel boxes" that could drive people around. The pod-like system would be a more cost-effective driverless system than something complicated like a driverless car.

Still, with so many automakers and tech companies working self-driving cars , it does seem likely we could see one in use in a decade.

Self-driving vehicles could be ubiquitous in the next 10 years.

Self-driving vehicles could be ubiquitous in the next 10 years.

Pearson described a ride-sharing system where people would order "cheap steel boxes" that could drive people around. The pod-like system would be a more cost-effective driverless system than something complicated like a driverless car.

Architects around the globe have actually been racing to build the world\'s first 3D-printed house . 

In China, a company named Winsun said it built 10 3D-printed houses in one day — each costing just $5,000. A professor at USC is working on a gigantic 3D printer that can build an entire house, with electrical and plumbing conduits.

Pearson said the ability to 3D print cheaper houses will be a major asset as cities become increasingly more crowded.

3D-printing could be used to construct more houses in 20 years.

3D-printing could be used to construct more houses in 20 years.

Architects around the globe have actually been racing to build the world's first 3D-printed house . 

Architects around the globe have actually been racing to build the world's first 3D-printed house . 

In China, a company named Winsun said it built 10 3D-printed houses in one day — each costing just $5,000. A professor at USC is working on a gigantic 3D printer that can build an entire house, with electrical and plumbing conduits.

"Between artificial intelligence and robotics, we\'ll have quite a lot of assistant tech and some companionship since a lot of people will be living alone," Pearson said. "So companionship is one of the primary goals for future robots."

Toyota has already announced its plans to build robots geared toward assisting people around the house.

People could start using robots to do work around their house and provide companionship starting in 2030.

People could start using robots to do work around their house and provide companionship starting in 2030.

"Between artificial intelligence and robotics, we'll have quite a lot of assistant tech and some companionship since a lot of people will be living alone," Pearson said. "So companionship is one of the primary goals for future robots."

"Between artificial intelligence and robotics, we'll have quite a lot of assistant tech and some companionship since a lot of people will be living alone," Pearson said. "So companionship is one of the primary goals for future robots."

Pearson said advancements in nanotechnology will make it possible to plug our brains into computers and live in a simulated world.

"You can certainly make something a bit like the Matrix, if you wanted to," Pearson told Tech Insider. "Around 2045, 2050, you could link people\'s brains to the computers so much that they believe they’re living in a virtual world."

Pearson said the concept is a bit like what Tesla CEO Elon Musk outlined when he talked about neural lace at the Vox Media\'s Code Conference in Southern California.

Neural lace is a wireless brain-computer system that would add a digital layer of intelligence to our brain. It\'s a concept nanotechnologists have been working on .

We could live in a Matrix-like virtual world by 2045.

We could live in a Matrix-like virtual world by 2045.

"You can certainly make something a bit like the Matrix, if you wanted to," Pearson told Tech Insider. "Around 2045, 2050, you could link people's brains to the computers so much that they believe they’re living in a virtual world."

Pearson said the concept is a bit like what Tesla CEO Elon Musk outlined when he talked about neural lace at the Vox Media's Code Conference in Southern California.

Neural lace is a wireless brain-computer system that would add a digital layer of intelligence to our brain. It's a concept nanotechnologists have been working on .

"You can certainly make something a bit like the Matrix, if you wanted to," Pearson told Tech Insider. "Around 2045, 2050, you could link people's brains to the computers so much that they believe they’re living in a virtual world."

If we can link people\'s brains to computers by 2045, then we could use similar technology to turn people into part-machine, part-human.

That\'s why Pearson said he does buy into Musk\'s neural lace theory. But even though he thinks the technology will be ready, Pearson said he predicts government regulations will prevent most people from using it.

"I don\'t think it\'s politically possible anytime soon," he said. "I don\'t think we will allow technologically-enhanced soldiers with super advanced minds or executives hooked up to machines."

People could also become Cyborgs by 2045.

People could also become Cyborgs by 2045.

If we can link people's brains to computers by 2045, then we could use similar technology to turn people into part-machine, part-human.

That's why Pearson said he does buy into Musk's neural lace theory. But even though he thinks the technology will be ready, Pearson said he predicts government regulations will prevent most people from using it.

"I don't think it's politically possible anytime soon," he said. "I don't think we will allow technologically-enhanced soldiers with super advanced minds or executives hooked up to machines."

"I don't think it's politically possible anytime soon," he said. "I don't think we will allow technologically-enhanced soldiers with super advanced minds or executives hooked up to machines."

We\'re actually already starting to see this with products like Amazon\'s Echo, which lets users control the lights in their homes and access other information. By 2040, AI will be built into buildings themselves, so you can talk to the building and ask for adjustments in temperature or lighting.

"Artificial intelligence will be a big home servant," Pearson said.

People could control their home settings using artificial intelligence by 2040 as well.

People could control their home settings using artificial intelligence by 2040 as well.

We're actually already starting to see this with products like Amazon's Echo, which lets users control the lights in their homes and access other information. By 2040, AI will be built into buildings themselves, so you can talk to the building and ask for adjustments in temperature or lighting.

"Artificial intelligence will be a big home servant," Pearson said.

Pearson also highlighted this in a report he put together with construction equipment rental company Hewden.

More cities will elect to create high-rise buildings with floors dedicated to gyms, residential space, and office work to accommodate the influx of people that will move into cities over the next two decades, Pearson said.

Super tall buildings could function like mini-cities in the next 25 years.

Super tall buildings could function like mini-cities in the next 25 years.

Pearson said we won\'t need to use fossil fuels to power things on the ground, like houses and cars, by 2050, but that it will still be necessary to run planes.

Improvements in underwater cabling will allow countries to use solar power from places like the Sahara Desert to power their entire country. The ability to draw solar energy from areas with more access to sun will increase our reliance on solar power over time.

"I\'m very optimistic that maybe by 2030 we might start seeing these very large solar farms appearing in the Sahara," he told Tech Insider.

He added that nuclear fusion is also on track to power homes by 2045. China actually hit a huge milestone recently when it was able recreate solar conditions for well over a minute  at its nuclear fusion plant.

"We don\'t need fossil fuels on the ground past 2050," he said.

We could rely entirely on renewable energy by the year 2050.

We could rely entirely on renewable energy by the year 2050.

Pearson said we won't need to use fossil fuels to power things on the ground, like houses and cars, by 2050, but that it will still be necessary to run planes.

"I'm very optimistic that maybe by 2030 we might start seeing these very large solar farms appearing in the Sahara," he told Tech Insider.

"We don't need fossil fuels on the ground past 2050," he said.

Improvements in underwater cabling will allow countries to use solar power from places like the Sahara Desert to power their entire country. The ability to draw solar energy from areas with more access to sun will increase our reliance on solar power over time.

"I'm very optimistic that maybe by 2030 we might start seeing these very large solar farms appearing in the Sahara," he told Tech Insider.

He added that nuclear fusion is also on track to power homes by 2045. China actually hit a huge milestone recently when it was able recreate solar conditions for well over a minute  at its nuclear fusion plant.

"We don't need fossil fuels on the ground past 2050," he said.

Pearson said rocket companies like Jeff Bezo\'s Blue Origin and Elon Musk\'s SpaceX will push the envelope with space travel enough that tourism will be feasible in the year 2050.

"Someone who could afford to pay 100 million quid could spend a week in orbit... but it would only be for rich people in 2050." he said. "It\'s not going to be something that\'s cheap anytime soon."

Space tourism could be feasible in 2050, but likely only for the very wealthy.

Space tourism could be feasible in 2050, but likely only for the very wealthy.

Pearson said rocket companies like Jeff Bezo's Blue Origin and Elon Musk's SpaceX will push the envelope with space travel enough that tourism will be feasible in the year 2050.

"Someone who could afford to pay 100 million quid could spend a week in orbit... but it would only be for rich people in 2050." he said. "It's not going to be something that's cheap anytime soon."

"Someone who could afford to pay 100 million quid could spend a week in orbit... but it would only be for rich people in 2050." he said. "It's not going to be something that's cheap anytime soon."


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The Rise of Space Tourism

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F or millionaires and billionaires, space tourism is considered the next step of the human race into space.

Fortunately, for potential space tourists in 2021, advanced technology, space station construction and new knowledge of space travel has opened the door for a new type of leisure.

The advent of space tourism occurred at the end of the 1990s, incited by a deal between a Russian company, MirCorp, and an American company: Space Adventures Ltd .

MirCorp was a private venture in charge of its own space station, "Mir," and to generate income for maintenance, the company decided to sell a trip to Mir. The first paying passenger for this trip was ex-NASA engineer, Dennis Tito .

Space Adventures Ltd. was founded in 1998 by Eric Anderson , providing  zero-gravity atmospheric flights, orbital space lifts and other spaceflight-related experiences. They also hoped to offer the first commercial space flight.  zero-gravity atmospheric flights, orbital space lifts and other spaceflight-related experiences. They also hoped to offer the first commercial space flight.

Before Tito could make his trip with MirCorp, however, the decision was made to deorbit its space station, and Space Adventures Ltd. handed off the mission to the International Space Station (ISS). 

Tito paid $20 million in 2001 for his flight on the Russian spacecraft, Soyuz TM-32 . He spent seven full days on board the ISS and is considered the world’s first space tourist. 

While many companies have tried to chart a path in space tourism, only three main ones have made an impact: SpaceX, Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic.

Shivram Mahendran, a sixth year Software Engineering graduate  student , is a professional Product Designer; his previous works include is previous works include multiple space projects for Microsoft.

Elon Musk, the current CEO of Tesla, created SpaceX with the goal of reducing space transportation costs and expanding our reach within the solar system.

SpaceX has gained an opportunity to work with NASA. This contract has given the company greater commercial visibility.

Musk hopes to build 1,000 starships over a span of 10 years , helping the company to later explore Mars.

"SpaceX’s mission is simple ... taking crew and spaceships to Mars by 2050," Mahendran said.

"SpaceX’s mission is simple ... taking crew and spaceships to Mars by 2050."

Amazon founder Jeff Bezos is also using his wealth to establish space-based properties. While SpaceX's goal is directly related to exploring other planets, Bezos's is to create a space hotel.

Blue Origin was also in the running to partner with NASA, but SpaceX won the bid instead.

Despite this, Blue Origin continues their work towards space tourism. Announced in Oct. 2021, Blue Origin and Sierra Space hope to launch Orbital Reef, their own space station, by the late 2020s.

This commercially developed, owned and operated space station will be built in low Earth orbit, with the main goal of creating a human habitat in space. It is expected to be operating in the second half of the current decade.

Another company,  Virgin Galactic, was the first to openly offer space trips to civilians. However, it has been postponing its commercial flights due to various factors, including manufacturing defects .

2021 seems to be the year of private companies launching civilians, alongside with trained astronauts, into space. As of Nov. 8, 2021, only 16 people have made the journey so far: four with SpaceX, four with Virgin Galactic and eight with Blue Origin.

As space tourism evolves, the number of spaceflight participants will grow. Suborbital and orbital flights will inevitably give way to lunar excursions and trips to Mars. By that time, space tourism may become a full-fledged industry capable of truly opening the frontier of space.

Convenient Space Gadgets

Due to space tourism's current popularity, a trend has led to the creation of various new technologies that space tourists will be able to utilize.

Product designers have envisioned several instruments to meet the basic needs of future space tourists including, but not limited to: air, heat, light and food.

One instruments that may be used is the " aerating loop, " designed to provide an extra kick of oxygen. Other items such as a personal heater, spatial food steamer and floating light may also be useful.

While we wait for space tourism to ramp up though, Virtual Reality (VR) technology While we wait for space tourism to ramp up though, Virtual Reality (VR) technology While we wait for space tourism to ramp up though, Virtual Reality (VR) technology has been developed to see space from Earth.

Michelle Bobilev is a fourth year Digital Humanities and Social Sciences student and is currently developing her CAPSTONE project:  a virtual reality planetarium .

"The VR Planetarium is a virtual reality model of a planetarium designed in Unreal Engine with 3D assets created with Blender modeling software," Bobilev explained.

She added that with the use of VR headsets and controllers, users can navigate the virtual space and choose from a variety of locations to explore.

"If the people have the tool to see the galaxy and what is out there ... VR will be an essential gadget before taking a flight there," she said.

"If the people have the tool to see the galaxy and what is out there ... VR will be an essential gadget before taking a flight there."

In the future, space tourists would be able to utilize these gadgets as a way to visualize and get a taste of what they are looking to experience out there.

Collateral Benefits

Some people are concerned about the environmental impact of space tourism. Experts claim rocket launches could damage our ozone layer. Certain chemicals in rocket fumes may be getting trapped in the stratosphere allowing them to eat away at it.

Until now, this problem hasn't been a huge issue due to limited launches. With rocket launches becoming more frequent due to space tourism, however, it could become a much bigger contributor to climate change.

Another issue is that space tourism is a luxury only available for few due to the cost. Private companies and billionaires will not be the only ones to benefit from leisurely space travel though.Another issue is that space tourism is a luxury only available for few due to the cost. Private companies and billionaires will not be the only ones to benefit from leisurely space travel though.

The rise of space tourism can provide further development of terrestrial observation systems and the preparation of technologies for interplanetary travel, among other things.

This new era of research could make space science more accessible. In addition, improvements in technologies on earth are often based on innovations that started in space. Our trip to the moon gave us our running shoes, foam mattresses and even bulletproof vests.

space tourism in 2050

The Satellites Podcast

The Satellites Podcast

The Final Frontier: Weighing the Benefits and Drawbacks of Space Tourism

Are you ready to boldly go where few have gone before? Space tourism promises to be the ultimate adventure for thrill-seekers and astronomy enthusiasts alike. From seeing the Earth from space to experiencing zero gravity, the prospect of space travel is an exciting one.

But with any new technology, there are always drawbacks to consider, particularly for something as risky as strapping yourself to a rocket and leaving the planet’s atmosphere. In this blog post, we’ll take a closer look at the pros and cons of space tourism, and weigh up whether it’s really worth the risk.

But before we explore its benefits, let’s consider the drawbacks of space tourism.

The Final Frontier: Weighing the Benefits and Drawbacks of Space Tourism

As humanity continues to push the boundaries of exploration, one exciting concept that gains increasing attention is space tourism. However, while the idea of traveling beyond Earth’s atmosphere may seem exhilarating, it’s important to weigh the potential benefits against the drawbacks of space tourism.

On the one hand, space tourism could offer numerous benefits, including inspiring innovation and scientific discovery, driving new economic opportunities, and providing an unforgettable experience to those who embark on such a journey. On the other hand, there are significant drawbacks of space tourism that must be considered, including the high cost of entry, the potential environmental impact, and the risks to human safety.

While the idea of looking into the vast unknown is appealing, it’s vital that we take a close look at the full picture before we jump aboard this new frontier.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Space Tourism

Advantages of space tourism, economic benefits of space tourism, technological advances from space tourism, environmental concerns of space tourism, health and safety risks of space tourism, ethical considerations of space tourism, conclusion and future of space tourism, exploring the pros and cons of space tourism with the satellites podcast.

As humans, we have always looked up at the stars with wonder and curiosity. The idea of space travel has been a focus of science fiction for generations, but what was once a figment of our imagination is now becoming a reality – thanks to space tourism.

For those unfamiliar with the concept, space tourism is exactly what it sounds like – tourists traveling to space for recreational or leisure purposes. With advancements in technology, space travel has become a possibility for those with deep pockets and a sense of adventure.

Space tourism could be the pinnacle experience that travelers search for – the ultimate exploration of the unknown. But as the space tourism industry grows, there are concerns and drawbacks to be weighed.

While it allows the wealthy to experience space, the high cost limits accessibility to all but the richest individuals. Additionally, the environmental impact of space tourism must be considered.

Launching rockets and other vehicles could harm the already fragile balance of our planet’s atmosphere. As we continue to debate the benefits and drawbacks of space tourism, we must also look ahead to the future of space travel.

Will it remain reserved for the elite, or will advances in technology allow for more widespread access? Regardless of the outcome, the concept of space tourism will continue to captivate our imaginations as we explore the final frontier.

Exploring Outer Space has long been a fascination of many, and only a select few have had the opportunity to venture beyond our planet. However, with the rise of space tourism, more people than ever before may soon have the chance to experience what it’s like to be an astronaut.

One of the primary benefits of Space Tourism is the potential for scientific research. As more and more people are able to travel to space, researchers can gather a wealth of data that was previously limited to only a handful of astronauts.

This new data could lead to breakthrough discoveries in fields like astronomy, physics, and biology.Another advantage of Space Tourism is the economic boost it could provide.

The industry has the potential to not only create jobs but also drive technological advancements and innovations that could benefit industries beyond just space-related ones.Moreover, space tourism could inspire a new generation of people to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields.

As more people become interested in space exploration and the possibilities it holds, they may be motivated to invest their time and energy into learning the skills required to become astronauts, engineers, and scientists.However, it’s not all smooth sailing when it comes to Space Tourism.

One major drawback is the potential risks involved. Space travel is inherently hazardous, and even with the best safety measures in place, accidents can happen.

Furthermore, the environmental impact of space tourism could be significant, as rockets and other space travel equipment can release harmful emissions into the atmosphere.Overall, exploring Outer Space has enormous potential to benefit us in myriad ways.

However, it’s important to weigh the pros and cons and consider the impacts of our actions as we move forward with this exciting frontier.

Space tourism has been a hot topic in recent years. Many people dream of traveling to space and experiencing the weightlessness and breathtaking views that only a select few have been able to witness.

While there are many potential benefits to space tourism, there are also some significant drawbacks that need to be considered. One of the key benefits of space tourism is the potential economic impact.

It’s estimated that the space tourism industry could be worth billions of dollars within the next decade.However, the cost of space tourism may be a barrier to entry for many.

Currently, the cost to travel to space is prohibitively high for all but a handful of ultra-wealthy individuals. For example, a trip to the International Space Station costs around $35,000 per night.

This means that only the wealthiest people in the world will be able to afford a trip to space in the near future.Despite these high costs, there are some potential economic benefits to space tourism.

For example, space tourism could create new jobs in the aerospace industry and stimulate economic growth in areas that are involved in space travel. Additionally, space tourism could lead to advancements in technology that could have applications beyond the tourism industry.

Ultimately, the cost of space tourism is a significant factor that needs to be considered when weighing the benefits and drawbacks of this new industry. While there are some potential economic benefits, the cost may be too high for the majority of people to participate in space tourism in the near future.

However, as technology advances and costs are reduced, it’s possible that space tourism could become more accessible for a wider range of people.

As the prospect of space tourism edges closer to reality, many people are left wondering if the benefits of indulging in this unique experience outweigh the potential drawbacks. While there are certainly risks associated with venturing beyond the Earth’s atmosphere, there are also several technological advances that could emerge from the pursuit of space tourism.

One major benefit of space tourism is the potential for scientific advancements. Spacecraft used for tourism purposes may also carry equipment and resources, allowing scientists to conduct research and experiments in space that would not be possible with current technology.

This could lead to breakthroughs in a variety of fields, including medicine, engineering, and more.Moreover, the advancements made in creating and operating spacecraft for tourists may lead to more efficient and cost-effective methods of space travel.

The experience gained from transporting passengers safely and efficiently to space could translate into improved technology and infrastructure for future space missions.However, it is important to acknowledge the potential drawbacks of space tourism as well.

The risk of accidents or malfunctions cannot be ignored, particularly when taking civilians into space. Additionally, there is the ethical question of whether or not space tourism is a justifiable use of resources when there are still so many problems to solve here on Earth.

Ultimately, whether or not space tourism is worth it depends on one’s perspective and priorities. While it may provide benefits in terms of scientific advancements and technological innovation, it is also important to consider the potential risks and ethical concerns involved.

Only time will tell if the benefits of space tourism will truly outweigh the drawbacks.

Space Travel has always been an object of fascination for humankind. However, with recent advancements in technology and a growing interest in commercial space travel, the idea of Space Tourism has become a popular topic of discussion.

space tourism in 2050

When it comes to considering the benefits and drawbacks of Space Tourism, one cannot ignore the environmental concerns that come along with it. The carbon footprint of building and launching a spacecraft, as well as the emissions that will be produced during flights, are some of the primary concerns.

In addition, Space Tourism could raise concerns about the impact of waste produced during space travel on the pristine environment of space. Since space lacks the necessary resources to support human life, waste management in space is a significant challenge.

However, proponents of Space Tourism argue that the technological innovations and advancements made during the development of this industry could aid environmental conservation. For instance, the development of reusable rockets could usher in an era of more sustainable space operations.

Furthermore, as more people gain access to Space Travel, the understanding of the importance of preserving our planet’s natural resources could increase. This, in turn, could lead to greater public support for conservation efforts.

In conclusion, the environmental concerns surrounding Space Tourism are valid, and they should not be overlooked. However, with proper planning and implementation, Space Tourism could also bring about significant benefits for sustainability both on Earth and in space.

When it comes to commercial space travel, the concept of health and safety risks is certainly one of the most talked-about topics. After all, space is a dangerous place, and taking tourists into space is a risky affair.

But what exactly are these risks, and how do they compare to the benefits of space tourism?Firstly, there are the physical risks associated with space travel. The human body is not designed to survive in the harsh environment of space, and there are a number of health issues that can arise as a result.

These can range from minor problems like nausea and motion sickness to more serious issues like radiation exposure and bone density loss. However, with proper training and preparation, many of these risks can be mitigated or avoided altogether.

In addition to physical risks, there are also financial risks to consider. The cost of launching a spacecraft is exorbitant, and if something goes wrong during a commercial space travel mission, it could have huge financial repercussions for the company involved.

Despite these risks, many experts argue that the benefits of space tourism far outweigh the drawbacks. For one thing, space tourism could help to spark a new era of space exploration, and could lead to advances in technology and innovation that could benefit humanity as a whole.

Ultimately, the decision of whether or not to pursue commercial space travel is a complex one that requires careful consideration of all the risks and benefits involved. But with the right planning and preparation, it is possible to make space tourism a safe and profitable venture that could open up a whole new frontier for human exploration.

The Space Tourism Industry has seen a significant boom in recent years, raising a variety of ethical considerations concerning the benefits and drawbacks of opening the final frontier to a broader audience. While proponents of Space Tourism champion the innovative opportunities and scientific discoveries that could emerge from this new sector, its skeptics warn of environmental concerns, ethical implications, and long-term impacts on society.

One of the primary ethical considerations surrounding Space Tourism is the potential impact on the environment. Commercial launches and frequent space travel have the potential to cause significant damage to our planet as well as to the space itself, including increased atmospheric pollution, excessive noise, and debris.

Additionally, the use of non-renewable resources to fuel journeys could have serious ecological impacts, raising questions about sustainability.Moreover, the equitable distribution of Space Tourism is another ethical matter that needs to be considered.

As the costs to travel beyond the Earth’s atmosphere are likely to be prohibitive for many, this industry could further exacerbate existing social imbalances if the benefits are only accessible to a wealthy elite.Some supporters of Space Tourism argue that the benefits of advancing scientific knowledge and engineering in this field can outweigh the potential ethical concerns.

In addition, space tourism could provide a new source of revenue for space agencies that could be spent on funding further scientific research and development.In conclusion, there are various ethical considerations surrounding the Space Tourism Industry that need to be taken into account before finalizing this new frontier.

While some advocates believe it could result in positive outcomes regarding innovation and scientific discovery, others fear the detrimental long-term consequences that could harm our planet and society as a whole.

The prospects of space tourism are both tantalizing and cautionary. As we ponder the possibilities of interstellar exploration and celestial vacations, it’s important to weigh the pros and cons of this exciting and potentially game-changing industry.

On the one hand, space tourism presents a unique opportunity to expand human knowledge and experience beyond our earthly realm. It has the potential to inspire new generations of scientists, engineers, and adventurers, and to foster international cooperation in the pursuit of shared goals.

Moreover, it could stimulate economic growth and technological innovation by creating new jobs, markets, and product lines.On the other hand, space tourism also entails significant risks and downsides.

From a safety standpoint, it involves complex and hazardous systems that require high levels of expertise and preparation. In addition, it can have negative environmental impacts, such as pollution, depletion of resources, and disruption of ecosystems.

Furthermore, it raises ethical and social concerns about the fairness and accessibility of extraterrestrial experiences, as well as the potential commercialization and commodification of space.As we consider the balance of these factors, it’s clear that space tourism is a complex and multi-faceted issue that requires careful consideration and dialogue.

While there may be no easy answers or clear-cut solutions, it’s important to engage in thoughtful and informed discussions about the future of this exciting and evolving field. Ultimately, the fate of space tourism will depend on our collective vision, values, and aspirations for the final frontier.

The Satellites Podcast is an all-encompassing YouTube channel for space enthusiasts who want to learn about various topics related to rocket science. One of the topics that the channel focuses on is Space Tourism.

Space tourism is a concept that has gained a lot of popularity in recent years. As people become more adventurous and willing to pay for exotic experiences, space tourism is becoming a real possibility.

The question everyone asks themselves is, is it worth it? So, how does The Satellites Podcast help in answering the pros and cons of space tourism? The Satellites Podcast provides a platform where individuals can learn about the ins-and-outs of space tourism. There are different experts on the show who provide insights into the industry, the cost, and the experience.

The show evaluates the benefits of space tourism, such as the opportunity for people to experience what astronauts see and feel, the global economic boost from the industry, and the fact that it will inspire a new generation of scientists and space enthusiasts. On the flip side, the show also explores the cons of space tourism, such as the significant environmental impact on Earth, the difficulty and danger in space travel, and the immense costs and the socio-economic inequality that will occur if only the wealthy can afford to partake in this experience.

Whether for research or entertainment purposes, The Satellites Podcast is an ideal place to educate oneself on the prospect and the implications of space tourism.

Finishing Up

In conclusion, the topic of space tourism offers an intriguing debate on whether or not it is worth pursuing. While some argue that the benefits of space tourism, such as boosting scientific advancements and inspiring young people, outweigh the possible negative consequences, others believe that the risks to human life and the environment are simply too great.

Ultimately, the decision to invest in space tourism rests on a complex balance of priorities and values. Whether we choose to explore the final frontier or focus on improving conditions on our own planet remains to be seen, but one thing is certain – the exploration of space will continue to captivate the human imagination for generations to come.

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voyage 2050

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Home - Voyage 2050

Voyage 2050 long-term planning of the esa science programme, updates on voyage 2050 can be found here ..

11 June 2021

Voyage 2050 sets sail: ESA chooses future science mission themes

​​​​​​ ESA’s large-class science missions for the timeframe 2035-2050 will focus on moons of the giant Solar System planets, temperate exoplanets or the galactic ecosystem, and new physical probes of the early Universe. [Read the press release here ]

The report of the Senior Committee to the Director of Science is available to download. 

space tourism in 2050

26 May 2021

Message from the Senior Committee Chair and Co-Chair
 The Senior Committee recommendations have been submitted to the ESA Director of Science

We are delighted to announce that the Voyage 2050 Senior Committee has completed its work and a report has been submitted to the ESA Director of Science detailing the Committee’s final recommendations. This report will be the basis of a proposal for the long-term planning of ESA’s science programme that the Director will bring to the Science Programme Committee meeting in June. ESA will communicate the outcome of the SPC decision shortly after the meeting, and later this year will present the recommendations in a publication for a broad readership.

We recall that the Director of Science requested the Senior Committee make a three-tiered recommendation. The first was to provide a clear recommendation on science themes for the next three Large missions following JUICE, ATHENA, and LISA. The second was to provide a list of possible themes that could be addressed through Medium missions, and the third recommendation was to propose areas of long-term technology development that would lead to breakthrough science from ESA Space Science missions in the future, beyond Voyage 2050.

The starting point for the Senior Committee’s work was the almost 100 White Papers, outlining a wide range of diverse and ambitious ideas for science themes, submitted by the scientific community. This wealth of ideas had to be distilled to a much smaller number of themes for the recommendations. The Senior Committee was supported in this daunting task by the Topical Teams who ensured that the Committee had access to broad and diverse scientific views and opinions.

On behalf of the Senior Committee members we send our heartfelt thanks and gratitude to the authors of the White Papers, for providing us with a rich palette of exciting and ambitious science themes from which to choose, and to the members of the Topical Teams for their important and crucial contribution to the Voyage 2050 process.

The delivery of the Senior Committee report marks the point at which the Voyage 2050 'baton' is passed to ESA. We look forward to following the next steps of the Voyage 2050 journey.

Linda Tacconi and Chris Arridge Chair and Co-Chair of the Voyage 2050 Senior Committee

21 April 2021

Message from the Senior Committee Chair and Co-Chair
 Update on the Voyage 2050 process

We are happy to report that the Senior Committee is now preparing the report containing the Committee’s recommendation to the Director of Science. We have arrived at this point following numerous virtual meetings, which ran until early this year, and during which we carefully considered the reports of the individual Topical Teams and distilled the potential L- and M-class science themes, as well as areas that are ripe for technology development. After much focused, robust debate and deliberation the Senior Committee members have reached a consensus on the recommendations. Our report to the Director of Science will be delivered in mid-May and a public report will be issued later this year.

10 July 2020

It has been some time since the Voyage 2050 workshop in Madrid, and even longer since we received the White Papers for consideration for Voyage 2050, and we felt it was important to provide an update of the Voyage 2050 process.  This is especially relevant given the upheaval the world has seen in the first half of this year.  As you might imagine, COVID-19 has had a significant effect on our process.  

The Topical Teams met at ESTEC in January to discuss all the White Paper submissions and to begin to synthesise the contributions so that we could develop a recommendation for the ESA Science Programme Committee (SPC).  During this period the Topical Teams also met with technical experts to seek their views on what would be possible in the Voyage 2050 time frame.

Since the January meeting the process has been affected by COVID-19.  A planned face-to-face meeting of the Senior Committee in April was cancelled due to physical distancing and lockdown procedures effected across Europe.  Instead, the work of the Committee has progressed via regular virtual meetings, albeit slower than would have occurred without this pandemic.  The original timeline was for the Senior Committee’s recommendation to be delivered to the SPC in November, but this is now anticipated to be more a draft recommendation rather than a formal recommendation as originally planned.  Accordingly, the release of the Voyage 2050 public report will also be delayed into 2021.  

We take this opportunity to thank all the contributors to the Voyage 2050 process: the White Paper authors, whose works continue to be of use in the ongoing deliberations; the Topical Team members for their excellent work in robustly analysing the contributions, and the Senior Committee for their diligent work with these Topical Teams.  

4 March 2019

The Science Programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) relies on long-term planning of its scientific priorities. The first long-term plan, Horizon 2000, was the result of an exercise started in 1983, and it was followed by an extension, Horizon 2000 Plus, that resulted in the initiation of the Gaia and BepiColombo missions. The successive planning exercise, Cosmic Vision , was started in 2004 and is the current basis against which the content of the Science Programme is set.

Cosmic Vision is the result of a bottom-up process that began with a consultation of the broad scientific community. The plan, which comprises a variety of missions and extends up to 2035, defines the wide-ranging and ambitious scientific questions to be addressed by missions in the ESA Science Programme.

The next planning cycle of the ESA Science Programme, Voyage 2050, is now underway. In keeping with the bottom-up, peer-reviewed nature of the Science Programme, the definition of the next plan relies on open community input and on broad peer review. The community input will be gathered through the Call for White Papers, while the peer review of this input will take place through a two-tiered committee structure, with a Senior Committee of 13 European scientists supported by a number of Topical Teams. Scientists interested in participating in peer review process are invited to respond to the Call for Membership of the Topical Teams.

Membership of Topical Teams

Scientists working in ESA Member States and with an interest in any topic in space science and in the relevant technologies are welcome to apply for membership of the Topical Teams. Space science is defined here in a broad sense, including the observation of the Universe, planetary science, solar science, study of the space environment, and scientific experiments that can be carried out from a spacecraft.

The Topical Teams will be appointed by the Director of Science after the evaluation and recommendations of the Senior Committee. It is intended to have a mix of experience represented in each Topical Team and early career scientists are specifically encouraged to apply.

Full details, including information about Voyage 2050, the tasks of the Topical Team members, and information needed by applicants, can be found in the Call for Membership of Topical Teams document .

By means of the present Call for White Papers, the Agency is soliciting ideas from the scientific community for the science themes that should be covered during the Voyage 2050 planning cycle.

White Papers are not proposals for specific missions; they should rather argue why a specific scientific theme should have priority in the Voyage 2050 planning cycle. At the same time, and to ensure realism in the resulting Programme, applicants should briefly illustrate possible mission profiles.

Any scientist or science team can submit a White Paper, with no limitation in terms of residence or nationality. All White Papers must be submitted in English. White Paper lead scientists cannot be members of the Topical Teams.

Full details, including information about Voyage 2050, the requirements for White Papers, and the role these will play in formulating the future Science Programme, can be found in the Call for White Papers document .

An open workshop was held 29-31 October 2019 in Madrid, Spain, at which the White Papers were presented.

Submission forms

Schedule for this call and important dates.

Applicants who require further information while preparing their response to the Calls are invited to contact:

@

Last updated: 21 April 2021

To be informed about new Announcements or Calls from the ESA Science Directorate please subscribe to the dsciannounce mailing list .

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The Future of Space Tourism

Where we are now.

space tourism in 2050

The idea of Space Tourism feels like something out of a futuristic sci-fi film but the reality is that it’s been around for almost 20 years. Some may recall American businessman, Dennis Tito, becoming the first civilian tourist to visit the International Space Station in 2001. Tito’s trip to space cost him a colossal 20 million dollars, meaning at that price, going into space would remain a dream only to be experienced through films and stories for most of us.

The concept of space tourism evokes a sense of awe and wonder, igniting excitement and fascination within us. This burgeoning industry has gained momentum in recent years, and for valid reasons. For generations, the idea of journeying beyond the confines of Earth’s atmosphere into the boundless expanse of space has captivated the human imagination. With recent technological progress, this aspiration is no longer limited to astronauts and scientists alone, and the prospect of it is enough to entice anyone.

A 20 million dollar space holiday?

Space tourism may seem like a luxury only afforded by the super-rich, but it’s not just about money. It’s an opportunity for anyone to experience something truly unique, awe-inspiring and life-changing. The appeal of space tourism is undeniable, a chance to see the world from a completely different perspective, to feel weightlessness and witness the beauty of our planet from a distance.

According to recent surveys, interest in space tourism is not limited to the wealthy, with 38% of luxury travellers expressing interest in taking a space flight for recreational purposes. Among luxury travellers aged 16-34, that figure rises to an astounding 58%.

The mere thought of space tourism can evoke a sense of wonder and excitement. For many, it’s a chance to realise childhood dreams and experience something that was once unimaginable. It’s a chance to leave behind the mundane and experience the extraordinary. The possibilities of space tourism are endless, from suborbital flights to orbital flights, to staying in space hotels and even commercial space stations.

In this article, we will delve into the world of space tourism, exploring its history, current state, key players and what the future may hold. We will discuss the benefits and challenges of space tourism, its impact on society and the economy, and the ethical and environmental concerns that come with it. So, buckle up and prepare for lift-off as we embark on a journey to the final frontier.

The Space Tourism Market

astronaut in space, sat by a window in a shuttle

The government end-user segment is also expected to grow at a CAGR of 37% from 2022 to 2030. In the United States, North America led the overall market in 2022, with a market share of 38.6%. The region has a well-established infrastructure that has allowed for the speedier implementation of modern technologies, and the presence of an extensive research and development base.

There are two types of space tourism: sub-orbital and orbital.

Suborbital Spaceflight

The sub-orbital segment dominated the market in 2022, accounting for 49.3% of the overall market share and aims to reach an altitude of over 300,000 feet, reaching the Karman line, which is the benchmark to define where outer space begins. Currently there are two major players competing in this field, Virgin Galactic, part of Richard Branson’s empire and Blue Origin, run by Amazon’s billionaire founder Jeff Bezos. Both of the companies’ systems are rocket-powered and capable of carrying up to six passengers on a flight. Virgin has completed four successful flights however recently filed for bankruptcy after failing to find funding, Blue origin however has now flown 32 passengers on the New Sheppard alongside a number of uncrewed flights carrying payloads onboard.

Orbital Spaceflight

Unlike suborbital spaceflight which gives passengers a few minutes in space at an altitude of 300,000 feet, orbital spaceflight goes much further than this. Passengers are likely to spend between a few days in space up to over a week at an altitude of over 1.3 million feet. The final quarter of 2021 is likely to be a huge for tourists in orbital spaceflight, with two major companies Space Adventures and Axiom Space announcing up to nine seats to orbit available for purchase by either individuals or organizations.

The sub-orbital segment dominated the market in 2022, accounting for 49.3% of the overall market share. The orbital segment, on the other hand, is expected to witness the fastest growth of 41.0% throughout the forecast period. The demand for space tourism is expected to continue to grow in the coming years, as the cost of space travel decreases and more people become interested in the experience.

Current Space Tourism Competitors and Missions

Whilst still relatively new the space tourism industry already has several key players:

  • Blue Origin
  • Space Adventure
  • Zero 2 Infinity
  • Space Perspective

These companies are working to develop new technologies and services that will make space travel more accessible and affordable for a broader market.

space station

More recently NASA  funded three companies to develop commercial space stations, totaling $415M. Blue Origin received $130 million, Nanoracks received $160 million, and Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation received $125.6 million. These developments help support growing demand for space tourism, providing the necessary infrastructure to support it.

Where is Space Tourism Booming?

North America is leading the way in the space tourism market, with a well-established infrastructure and an extensive research and development base. Europe, although behind America in the market, is also showing potential in the space tourism industry, with the U.K. government pledging £2 million to fund horizontal space launches from the country. The U.K. has emerged as a region leader for spaceports, which could then transition into more opportunities for space tourism in Europe. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine have been detrimental to building the European space tourism market, with space activities and funding being diverted elsewhere. To keep up with the US, Europe needs to scale launch capabilities

Why is Space Tourism expected to be so popular?

astronaut waving

Going to space provides an opportunity to witness the beauty of the Earth from a completely different perspective. It allows one to see the planet as a whole, and to appreciate the fragile and interconnected nature of all life on Earth. The experience of weightlessness and the sensation of floating in space is also something that very few people have ever experienced, which makes it an incredible and unforgettable experience.

Choosing to go to space over an expensive holiday on Earth is a personal decision, but it offers a once-in-a-lifetime experience that cannot be replicated elsewhere. It provides an opportunity to break free from the monotony of everyday life and to embark on a truly unique adventure that can inspire personal growth and self-discovery. Furthermore, it offers an opportunity to contribute to the advancement of space exploration, science, and technology, which has the potential to benefit all of humanity in the long run.

But space tourism is not without its challenges…

While space tourism offers exciting opportunities, there are also some potential drawbacks and negative effects to consider.

Environmental Impact: Space tourism can have a negative impact on the environment. Launching spacecraft and rockets require a lot of energy and can produce significant amounts of air and noise pollution. These emissions can contribute to climate change and harm the atmosphere.

Safety Concerns: Space travel is still a dangerous endeavor, and accidents can happen. Despite safety protocols, there is always the risk of something going wrong, and the consequences of a mishap could be catastrophic.

Cost: At present, space tourism is an expensive venture that is accessible only to the wealthy. As a result, many people will not be able to experience space travel, which can create feelings of inequality and elitism.

Space Debris: Every launch of a spacecraft generates debris that can stay in orbit for many years, and as the number of space launches increases, the amount of debris grows. This debris can cause problems for other spacecraft, and even small debris can cause damage.

Resource Depletion: Space travel requires a vast amount of resources, including energy, fuel, and materials. The depletion of these resources could have long-term consequences and could negatively impact the environment and the availability of resources for future generations.

Legal Issues: The legal framework for space tourism is still evolving, and it is unclear who will be held responsible if something goes wrong. There are also concerns about the impact of space tourism on international space laws and treaties.

The industry must ensure safety and sustainability, avoiding the mistakes of the past and building a foundation for the future. Including continuing to invest in research and development and ensuring that space travel becomes more accessible and affordable for all.

So What’s Next?

Space hotels.

space tourism in 2050

Plans involving orbital spaceflight will require tourists to stay at the International Space Station, the only habitable structure in space at the moment but many companies are looking beyond this. Space hotels are likely to be the next venture for many to support the space tourism sector. One company, Orion Span , has developed plans for the first-ever “affordable” luxury space hotel called ‘Aurora station’. Orion Span is looking to launch in 2021 and start welcoming guests in 2022. This doesn’t mean the opportunity will be available to many of us with the expected cost of a 12-day stay on the ‘Aurora station’ coming to $9.5 million, quite literally a price that’s out of this world. Still, that’s a lot less than orbital tourists have paid in the past, as all of the seven private citizens that took trips to ISS each payed an estimated $20 million to $40 million per trip.

One small step for hotels … one giant leap for hotel life. Not only are space companies looking to venture into space hotels but giant hotel booking company Hotels.com. Launching the first online travel site, ‘offering future hotel bookings in space and reward earthlings with the ultimate out of this world travel escape’. Featuring space robes and slippers, intergalactic room service, solar lobbies, holographic wake-up calls, meteor mini bar, zero gravity space deck, pool and bar, which have all been imagined through beautiful renders of a space hotel on their galactic booking website.

Whilst space hotels like this may be a long way off until then there’s plenty of options to have an out of this world experience in one of these space themed hotels. Here’s our top five:

Top 5 Space Theme Hotels on Earth

space tourism in 2050

The website says : Experience the feeling of flying among the stars as you enjoy the comfort of your Serenity Latex Mattress, specially designed for your spaceship bed. The triangular whirlpool bath glows softly under the stars from a multitude of different galaxies as you enjoy watching movies on your Plasma Screen Television. The DVD provided ensures you can watch all the Star Wars movies you’re able to while staying with us.

The steam shower is equipped with the “Raindancer Shower” which is almost as good as having a masseuse in the room with you. Your wet bar comes complete with a microwave, refrigerator and coffeemaker so you will not have to leave your spaceship until you are done exploring the universe and are ready to return to Earth! Your mission, should you decide to accept it, is to enjoy your outer space experience and boldly go where no others have gone before.

Outer space room with Seaview balcony at Gold Coast Hotel, Hong Kong

The website says: Journey to a different galaxy in the Outer Space Room, where different planets hang from a ceiling of stars and a full space mural encourages a voyage for both the young and the young at heart. Little guests can sleep and play in their miniature bed, while adults can seek much-deserved rest in a giant crater bed.

Fantasy Land Hotel, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

The website says: 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, Blast-off! Explore the universe in our new Space Theme room and enjoy the amenities.

Pengheng Space Capsules Hotel, Shenzhen, China

Offering what is likely the most of the this world experience, this hotel pushes the boundaries of design and futurism. This exciting space themed hotel has done away with rooms and features a sleeping capsule mimicking life in space. Not only this, the hotel is staffed entirely by robots so maybe the designs fromHotel.com aren’t so farfetched after all!

The Executive suite at the Kameha Grand Zurich Hotel, Switzerland

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Voyage 2050 themes

Voyage 2050 sets sail: ESA chooses future science mission themes

ESA’s large-class science missions for the timeframe 2035-2050 will focus on moons of the giant Solar System planets, temperate exoplanets or the galactic ecosystem, and new physical probes of the early Universe.

“The selection of the Voyage 2050 themes is a pivotal moment for ESA’s science programme, and for the future generation of space scientists and engineers,” says Günther Hasinger, ESA Director of Science.

“Now that Cosmic Vision has taken shape with a clear plan for our missions until the mid 2030s, we must start planning the science and the technology we’ll need for the missions we want to launch decades from now, and that is why we are defining the top-level science themes of the Voyage 2050 plan today.”

A call for ideas for Voyage 2050 was issued in March 2019, generating close to 100 diverse and ambitious ideas, which were subsequently distilled into a number of science themes. Topical teams , comprising many early career through early scientists from a broad range of space science expertise areas, carried out an initial assessment of the themes and reported their findings to a senior science committee . This committee was tasked by the Director to recommend not only science themes for the next three large-class missions following the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer, Athena and LISA, but also to identify potential themes for future medium-class missions, and recommend areas for long-term technology development beyond the scope of Voyage 2050. The science themes were selected by ESA’s Science Programme Committee at a meeting on 10 June 2021. The specific missions themselves will be selected in due course when ESA issues individual calls for mission proposals.

“The Voyage 2050 plan is the result of a significant effort of the science community, of the topical teams, and of the senior committee who contributed to such a lively and productive debate to arrive at this outstanding proposal,” says Fabio Favata, Head of the Strategy, Planning and Coordination Office. “Voyage 2050 is setting sail, and will keep Europe at the forefront of space science for decades to come.”

Mission themes

The top three priorities for future large-class missions are identified as:

Moons of the giant planets Investigating the habitability potential of worlds in our Solar System is essential for understanding the emergence of life, and is of particular relevance in the search for Earth-like planets beyond our Solar System. Building on the legacy of the international Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and ESA’s upcoming Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer, a future outer Solar System mission with advanced instrumentation would focus on the study of the connection of ocean-bearing moon interiors with their near-surface environments, also attempting to search for possible biosignatures. The mission profile might include an in-situ unit, such as a lander or a drone.

Moons of the giant planets

From temperate exoplanets to the Milky Way Our Milky Way contains hundreds of millions of stars and planets along with dark matter and interstellar matter but our understanding of this ecosystem, a stepping-stone for understanding the workings of galaxies in general, is limited. A detailed understanding of our Galaxy’s formation history, including its “hidden regions”, is key to our understanding of galaxies in general. At the same time, the characterisation of temperate exoplanets in the mid-infrared, through a first spectrum of direct thermal emission from exoplanet atmospheres to better understand if they harbour truly habitable surface conditions, would be an outstanding breakthrough.

While the exoplanet topic is considered to have a high scientific priority, solidifying Europe’s leadership in the field of exoplanets beyond the lifetime of Cheops, Plato and Ariel, an informed choice between a study of the less accessible regions of our Galaxy and the study of temperate exoplanets needs to be made involving the interested scientific community to assess the likelihood of success and feasibility of missions within the large mission boundary conditions.

From temperate exoplanets to the Milky Way

New physical probes of the early Universe How did the Universe begin? How did the first cosmic structures and black holes form and evolve? These are outstanding questions in fundamental physics and astrophysics that could be addressed by missions exploiting new physical probes, such as detecting gravitational waves with high precision or in a new spectral window, or by high-precision spectroscopy of the cosmic microwave background – the relic radiation left over from the Big Bang. This theme follows the breakthrough science from Planckand the expected scientific return from LISA, and would leverage advances made in instrumentation to open a huge discovery space. Additional study and interaction with the scientific community will be needed to converge on a mission addressing this theme.

New physical probes of the early Universe

A bright future for medium-class missions

Medium-class missions are a key component of ESA’s Science Programme and enable Europe to conduct stand-alone missions that answer important scientific questions with relatively modest cost envelopes. Venus Express , Mars Express and the upcoming Euclid , Plato , and Ariel missions are examples of ESA’s past, current and future medium-class missions.

The Voyage 2050 committee identified themes across all domains of space science, from solar system science to astrometry, astronomy, astrophysics and fundamental physics, showing that breakthrough science can continue to be achieved within the medium-class mission cost-cap.  Medium missions will continue to be selected through future open 'Calls for missions'.

Medium-class missions also provide a route for Europe’s participation in ambitious missions with international partners. This could include contributing to NASA’s next-generation astronomy observatories – much like the current James Webb Space Telescope partnership – or to future outer Solar System missions, for example.

Technology development for the next century

In discussing the possible large mission themes, the Voyage 2050 committee identified several areas where the science return would be outstanding but the technology would not reach maturity by the timeframe of Voyage 2050. The committee therefore recommended investment in a number of technologies so that these themes could become a reality in the second half of this century. This covers topics such as cold atom interferometry for atomic clock development, enabling X-ray interferometry for the future study of compact objects like black holes, and developments for future planetary missions: in particular better power sources to enable the exploration of the outer Solar System, and advances in collecting and storing cryogenic samples of cometary ices for a future sample return mission.

Why plan now?

Long-term planning is essential to ensure success in future space science endeavours. Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 is the current planning cycle for ESA’s space science missions. It was created in 2005, and is predated by the Horizon 2000 plan prepared in 1984, and Horizon 2000 Plus, which was drawn up in 1994–95. To put these plans in context, comet-chasing Rosetta and its lander Philae, and ‘time-machine’ Planck and astronomy observatory Herschel all began life in Horizon 2000. Gaia , Lisa Pathfinder and BepiColombo were all conceived in Horizon 2000 Plus. Cosmic Vision missions are just being realised today: the exoplanet mission Cheops launched in 2019, and Solar Orbiter in 2020. Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer , Athena and LISA are all large-class missions in the Cosmic Vision plan. Large missions in particular require significant technology development, which often takes a number of years. Therefore, it is important to start defining the necessary technology well in advance, to ensure that ESA’s Science Programme can secure a world-class, forward-looking series of missions for future generations.

Thus, it is time to look beyond Cosmic Vision, to the period 2035-2050 – and even beyond – with the Voyage 2050 plan.

Notes for Editors The ESA Science Programme provides Europe with the tools to be a world leader in space science. For the scientific community, the programme fosters the conditions to sustain and enhance excellence, leading to discoveries and innovation. The Science Programme is populated by different types of missions, each of which fulfil a clearly defined role. Among these, the large-class missions are European-led flagship missions with a launch cadence of approximately one every decade. Previous examples include Rosetta, XMM-Newton, and Herschel. Medium-class missions may be ESA-led or carried out with international partners. These provide flexibility within the programme and have an expected launch cadence of two per decade. Integral and Planck are examples of ESA-led medium missions; the Huygens probe was a medium-class contribution to NASA’s Cassini mission. Large and medium missions are supplemented by smaller missions that focus on innovative implementations, follow a fast development path, and allow member states to play a leading role in missions.

For more information, please contact: ESA Media Relations [email protected]

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Chinese state-backed company to launch space tourism flights by 2028

BEIJING (Reuters) - Chinese commercial space company CAS Space announced its "space tourism vehicle" will first fly in 2027 and travel to the edge of space in 2028, state media reported on Friday.

The announcement comes just days after Jeff Bezos-backed Blue Origin announced that its New Shepard Rocket, which flies cargo and humans on short trips to the edge of space, would resume flights on Sunday, ending a near two-year pause of crewed operations.

CAS Space said that its vehicle will include a tourist cabin that has four panoramic windows and can carry seven passengers per flight. The company plans to arrange a launch every 100 hours from a newly-built aerospace theme park, with ten vehicles available to take tourists to the edge of space in shifts.

Tickets will cost 2 million to 3 million yuan ($415,127) per person per trip, state media said.

Guangzhou-based CAS Space was founded in 2018 and its second-largest shareholder is China's biggest state research institute, the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

China's space exploration program has recently narrowed the gap with the United States and could become the first country to return samples from the far side of the moon after it launched the Chang'e-6 mission earlier this month.

That launch attracted hordes of tourists to the launch site on China's island province of Hainan. Before blast-off tens of thousands of people gathered in different viewing spots near the launch site, causing long traffic jams.

($1 = 7.2267 Chinese yuan renminbi)

(Reporting by Eduardo Baptista; Editing by Sonali Paul)

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Land use changes in the environs of Moscow

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This study illustrates the spatio-temporal dynamics of urban growth and land use changes in Samara city, Russia from 1975 to 2015. Landsat satellite imageries of five different time periods from 1975 to 2015 were acquired and quantify the changes with the help of ArcGIS 10.1 Software. By applying classification methods to the satellite images four main types of land use were extracted: water, built-up, forest and grassland. Then, the area coverage for all the land use types at different points in time were measured and coupled with population data. The results demonstrate that, over the entire study period, population was increased from 1146 thousand people to 1244 thousand from 1975 to 1990 but later on first reduce and then increase again, now 1173 thousand population. Builtup area is also change according to population. The present study revealed an increase in built-up by 37.01% from 1975 to 1995, than reduce -88.83% till 2005 and an increase by 39.16% from 2005 to 2015, along w...

Elena Milanova

Land use/Cover Change in Russia within the context of global challenges. The paper presents the results of a research project on Land Use/Cover Change (LUCC) in Russia in relations with global problems (climate change, environment and biodiversity degradation). The research was carried out at the Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University on the basis of the combination of remote sensing and in-field data of different spatial and temporal resolution. The original methodology of present-day landscape interpretation for land cover change study has been used. In Russia the major driver of land use/land cover change is agriculture. About twenty years ago the reforms of Russian agriculture were started. Agricultural lands in many regions were dramatically impacted by changed management practices, resulted in accelerated erosion and reduced biodiversity. Between the natural factors that shape agriculture in Russia, climate is the most important one. The study of long-term and short-ter...

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Land use and land cover change is a complex process, driven by both natural and anthropogenic transformations (Fig. 1). In Russia, the major driver of land use / land cover change is agriculture. It has taken centuries of farming to create the existing spatial distribution of agricultural lands. Modernization of Russian agriculture started fifteen years ago. It has brought little change in land cover, except in the regions with marginal agriculture, where many fields were abandoned. However, in some regions, agricultural lands were dramatically impacted by changed management practices, resulting in accelerating erosion and reduced biodiversity. In other regions, federal support and private investments in the agricultural sector, especially those made by major oil and financial companies, has resulted in a certain land recovery. Between the natural factors that shape the agriculture in Russia, climate is the most important one. In the North European and most of the Asian part of the ...

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In recent decades, Russia has experienced substantial transformations in agricultural land tenure. Post-Soviet reforms have shaped land distribution patterns but the impacts of these on agricultural use of land remain under-investigated. On a regional scale, there is still a knowledge gap in terms of knowing to what extent the variations in the compositions of agricultural land funds may be explained by changes in the acreage of other land categories. Using a case analysis of 82 of Russia’s territories from 2010 to 2018, the authors attempted to study the structural variations by picturing the compositions of regional land funds and mapping agricultural land distributions based on ranking “land activity”. Correlation analysis of centered log-ratio transformed compositional data revealed that in agriculture-oriented regions, the proportion of cropland was depressed by agriculture-to-urban and agriculture-to-industry land loss. In urbanized territories, the compositions of agricultura...

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Despite harsh climate, agriculture on the northern margins of Russia still remains the backbone of food security. Historically, in both regions studied in this article – the Republic of Karelia and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) – agricultural activities as dairy farming and even cropping were well adapted to local conditions including traditional activities such as horse breeding typical for Yakutia. Using three different sources of information – official statistics, expert interviews, and field observations – allowed us to draw a conclusion that there are both similarities and differences in agricultural development and land use of these two studied regions. The differences arise from agro-climate conditions, settlement history, specialization, and spatial pattern of economy. In both regions, farming is concentrated within the areas with most suitable natural conditions. Yet, even there, agricultural land use is shrinking, especially in Karelia. Both regions are prone to being af...

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The Unique Burial of a Child of Early Scythian Time at the Cemetery of Saryg-Bulun (Tuva)

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Pages:  379-406

In 1988, the Tuvan Archaeological Expedition (led by M. E. Kilunovskaya and V. A. Semenov) discovered a unique burial of the early Iron Age at Saryg-Bulun in Central Tuva. There are two burial mounds of the Aldy-Bel culture dated by 7th century BC. Within the barrows, which adjoined one another, forming a figure-of-eight, there were discovered 7 burials, from which a representative collection of artifacts was recovered. Burial 5 was the most unique, it was found in a coffin made of a larch trunk, with a tightly closed lid. Due to the preservative properties of larch and lack of air access, the coffin contained a well-preserved mummy of a child with an accompanying set of grave goods. The interred individual retained the skin on his face and had a leather headdress painted with red pigment and a coat, sewn from jerboa fur. The coat was belted with a leather belt with bronze ornaments and buckles. Besides that, a leather quiver with arrows with the shafts decorated with painted ornaments, fully preserved battle pick and a bow were buried in the coffin. Unexpectedly, the full-genomic analysis, showed that the individual was female. This fact opens a new aspect in the study of the social history of the Scythian society and perhaps brings us back to the myth of the Amazons, discussed by Herodotus. Of course, this discovery is unique in its preservation for the Scythian culture of Tuva and requires careful study and conservation.

Keywords: Tuva, Early Iron Age, early Scythian period, Aldy-Bel culture, barrow, burial in the coffin, mummy, full genome sequencing, aDNA

Information about authors: Marina Kilunovskaya (Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation). Candidate of Historical Sciences. Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Dvortsovaya Emb., 18, Saint Petersburg, 191186, Russian Federation E-mail: [email protected] Vladimir Semenov (Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation). Candidate of Historical Sciences. Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Dvortsovaya Emb., 18, Saint Petersburg, 191186, Russian Federation E-mail: [email protected] Varvara Busova  (Moscow, Russian Federation).  (Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation). Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences.  Dvortsovaya Emb., 18, Saint Petersburg, 191186, Russian Federation E-mail:  [email protected] Kharis Mustafin  (Moscow, Russian Federation). Candidate of Technical Sciences. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.  Institutsky Lane, 9, Dolgoprudny, 141701, Moscow Oblast, Russian Federation E-mail:  [email protected] Irina Alborova  (Moscow, Russian Federation). Candidate of Biological Sciences. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.  Institutsky Lane, 9, Dolgoprudny, 141701, Moscow Oblast, Russian Federation E-mail:  [email protected] Alina Matzvai  (Moscow, Russian Federation). Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.  Institutsky Lane, 9, Dolgoprudny, 141701, Moscow Oblast, Russian Federation E-mail:  [email protected]

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space tourism in 2050

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  1. Future Of Space Travel In 2050 ~ The Journey To Another Universe

    space tourism in 2050

  2. New photos show what future of space tourism could look like

    space tourism in 2050

  3. ESA Science & Technology

    space tourism in 2050

  4. Gigantic Elevator Into Space by 2050

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  5. Lockheed Martin presents the Destination: Space 2050 event

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  6. ESA Science & Technology

    space tourism in 2050

VIDEO

  1. The Future of Space Travel: Building Space Elevator by 2050 #sideproject #scifi #space #spacetravel

  2. Destination: Space 2050

  3. India's Space tourism by 2050

  4. Future of Space Tourism

  5. Space 2050: Future of Space

  6. Space Tourism is the Future

COMMENTS

  1. Life in 2050: A Glimpse at Space in the Future

    According to the 2019 SpaceWorks market forecast (9th ed.), crewed space stations could be worth as much as $50B between 2030 and 2050. There's also the burgeoning industry of space tourism ...

  2. How Space Tourism Is Skyrocketing

    Jason Lyon. By Debra Kamin. May 7, 2022. Ilida Alvarez has dreamed of traveling to space since she was a child. But Ms. Alvarez, a legal-mediation firm owner, is afraid of flying, and she isn't ...

  3. What will space exploration look like in 2050?

    By the year 2050, humans will have established a permanent presence on the Moon and a research base on Mars, while space travel will become a regular occurrence for many people. And the climate crisis could be partly addressed by the use of enormous solar shades in space that could help to protect us from the worst warming effects of the sun.

  4. The future of space travel and the space economy

    Rocket launches have become much less expensive, so thousands more satellites—and many more people than ever before—can venture into orbit. But more objects in space also mean more space debris and higher risks of collisions. In this edition of The Next Normal, McKinsey experts and industry executives envision the space industry's next ...

  5. Unveiling The Mind-Blowing Space Trends Of 2050: An ...

    Photo by NASA on Unsplash 10 Mind-Blowing Space Travel and Exploration Trends of 2050. The year 2050 promises to be an exciting time for space travel and exploration, with ground-breaking ...

  6. Space tourism: 6 key considerations for future space travel

    The 1986 Challenger and 2003 Columbia shuttle disasters are stark reminders of the dangers of space travel. Human space travel has always involved determining acceptable levels of risk for trained astronauts. But commercial space tourism is different to state-sponsored space programs, and will need the highest possible safety standards.

  7. The future of space tourism: op-ed

    According to UBS, if even only 5% of the average 150 million passengers that travel on 10 hour or longer flights pay $2,500 per trip, then returns could skyrocket to $20 billion per year in today ...

  8. Space tourism could be feasible in 2050, but likely only for the very

    Pearson said rocket companies like Jeff Bezo's Blue Origin and Elon Musk's SpaceX will push the envelope with space travel enough that tourism will be feasible

  9. The Future of Space Tourism

    A space tourism boom has been forecast for more than a decade,2 but the current regulatory landscape is designed for a fledgling industry that is yet to fully emerge.3 Companies proposing to offer space tourism, which have stayed afloat financially with the help of investors who foresee

  10. The Rise of Space Tourism

    The Rise of Space Tourism. by Tomas Rodrigo Mendez Mendez | published Dec. 25th, 2021. F or millionaires and billionaires, space tourism is considered the next step of the human race into space. Fortunately, for potential space tourists in 2021, advanced technology, space station construction and new knowledge of space travel has opened the ...

  11. Space tourism

    Spaceflight. Space tourism is human space travel for recreational purposes. [1] There are several different types of space tourism, including orbital, suborbital and lunar space tourism. Tourists are motivated by the possibility of viewing Earth from space, feeling weightlessness, experiencing extremely high speed and something unusual, and ...

  12. The Final Frontier: Weighing the Benefits and Drawbacks of Space Tourism

    With advancements in technology, space travel has become a possibility for those with deep pockets and a sense of adventure. Space tourism could be the pinnacle experience that travelers search for - the ultimate exploration of the unknown. But as the space tourism industry grows, there are concerns and drawbacks to be weighed.

  13. Home

    11 June 2021. Voyage 2050 sets sail: ESA chooses future science mission themes. ESA's large-class science missions for the timeframe 2035-2050 will focus on moons of the giant Solar System planets, temperate exoplanets or the galactic ecosystem, and new physical probes of the early Universe. [Read the press release here] 11 June 2021.

  14. The Future of Space Tourism

    In 2022, the global space tourism market was valued at USD 695.1 million, and it is projected to reach USD 8,669.2 million by 2030. The government end-user segment is also expected to grow at a CAGR of 37% from 2022 to 2030. In the United States, North America led the overall market in 2022, with a market share of 38.6%.

  15. Voyage 2050 sets sail: ESA chooses future science mission themes

    The Voyage 2050 committee identified themes across all domains of space science, from solar system science to astrometry, astronomy, astrophysics and fundamental physics, showing that breakthrough science can continue to be achieved within the medium-class mission cost-cap. Medium missions will continue to be selected through future open 'Calls ...

  16. Environmental sustainability of future proposed space activities

    In the second scenario, consistent with high growth of space tourism activities, 10 fully operating spaceports per company are assumed to be reached by 2050. In terms of orbital tourism, Merrill Lynch reported strong interest from the public in space travel, with 50% of the population surveyed willing to pay 50,000$ (US) for an orbital trip [77 ...

  17. Chinese state-backed company to launch space tourism flights by ...

    Chinese commercial space company CAS Space announced its "space tourism vehicle" will first fly in 2027 and travel to the edge of space in 2028, state media reported on Friday. The announcement ...

  18. Realistic Predictions for the Next 50 Years of Space Travel

    2049: Starship 2.0 is used to send 100 passengers to Mars at a time. The permanent population of Mars hits 200. 2050s: The cost of suborbital space tourism drops below $10,000, making it possible for the average person to go to space. The cost of orbital space tourism is around $100,000.

  19. Japan's 96,000 km Space Elevator Project: Reach Space in ...

    Explore how Japan's Obayashi Corporation plans to transform space travel with a pioneering 96,000 km-long space elevator, launching construction in 2025 Nucleus_AI 1850 Stories Wednesday May 15 ...

  20. Category:Landwart localities in Moscow Oblast

    Main page; Commonty Yett; Mercat Cross; Recent chynges; Wale page allevolie; Help; Propines

  21. Land use changes in the environs of Moscow

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  22. Space Tourism 2050

    Space Tourism 2050 - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. This document provides a product management case study for a space tourism app. It outlines users and their pain points, such as a wealthy traveler looking to stay connected to family during a long trip. Solutions are proposed and prioritized, with an augmented reality-based personal guide selected ...

  23. The Unique Burial of a Child of Early Scythian Time at the Cemetery of

    Burial 5 was the most unique, it was found in a coffin made of a larch trunk, with a tightly closed lid. Due to the preservative properties of larch and lack of air access, the coffin contained a well-preserved mummy of a child with an accompanying set of grave goods. The interred individual retained the skin on his face and had a leather ...

  24. Plan Your Trip to Molzino: Best of Molzino Tourism

    Molzino Tourism: Tripadvisor has reviews of Molzino Hotels, Attractions, and Restaurants making it your best Molzino resource.