Science | February 2, 2021

An Evolutionary Timeline of Homo Sapiens

Scientists share the findings that helped them pinpoint key moments in the rise of our species

Skulls of Human Evolutionary History Mobile

Brian Handwerk

Science Correspondent

The long evolutionary journey that created modern humans began with a single step—or more accurately—with the ability to walk on two legs. One of our earliest-known ancestors, Sahelanthropus , began the slow transition from ape-like movement some six million years ago, but Homo sapiens wouldn’t show up for more than five million years. During that long interim, a menagerie of different human species lived, evolved and died out, intermingling and sometimes interbreeding along the way. As time went on, their bodies changed, as did their brains and their ability to think, as seen in their tools and technologies.

To understand how Homo sapiens eventually evolved from these older lineages of hominins, the group including modern humans and our closest extinct relatives and ancestors, scientists are unearthing ancient bones and stone tools, digging into our genes and recreating the changing environments that helped shape our ancestors’ world and guide their evolution.

These lines of evidence increasingly indicate that H. sapiens originated in Africa, although not necessarily in a single time and place. Instead it seems diverse groups of human ancestors lived in habitable regions around Africa, evolving physically and culturally in relative isolation, until climate driven changes to African landscapes spurred them to intermittently mix and swap everything from genes to tool techniques. Eventually, this process gave rise to the unique genetic makeup of modern humans.

“East Africa was a setting in foment—one conducive to migrations across Africa during the period when Homo sapiens arose,” says Rick Potts , director of the Smithsonian’s Human Origins Program. “It seems to have been an ideal setting for the mixing of genes from migrating populations widely spread across the continent. The implication is that the human genome arose in Africa. Everyone is African, and yet not from any one part of Africa.”

New discoveries are always adding key waypoints to the chart of our human journey. This timeline of Homo sapiens features some of the best evidence documenting how we evolved.

550,000 to 750,000 Years Ago: The Beginning of the Homo sapiens Lineage

Homo heidelbergensis

Genes, rather than fossils, can help us chart the migrations, movements and evolution of our own species—and those we descended from or interbred with over the ages.

The oldest-recovered DNA of an early human relative comes from Sima de los Huesos , the “Pit of Bones.” At the bottom of a cave in Spain’s Atapuerca Mountains scientists found thousands of teeth and bones from 28 different individuals who somehow ended up collected en masse. In 2016, scientists painstakingly teased out the partial genome from these 430,000-year-old remains to reveal that the humans in the pit are the oldest known Neanderthals , our very successful and most familiar close relatives. Scientists used the molecular clock to estimate how long it took to accumulate the differences between this oldest Neanderthal genome and that of modern humans, and the researchers suggest that a common ancestor lived sometime between 550,000 and 750,000 years ago.

Pinpoint dating isn't the strength of genetic analyses, as the 200,000-year margin of error shows. “In general, estimating ages with genetics is imprecise,” says Joshua Akey, who studies evolution of the human genome at Princeton University. “Genetics is really good at telling us qualitative things about the order of events, and relative time frames.” Before genetics, these divergence dates were estimated by the oldest fossils of various lineages scientists found. In the case of H. sapiens, known remains only date back some 300,000 years, so gene studies have located the divergence far more accurately on our evolutionary timeline than bones alone ever could.

Though our genes clearly show that modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans —a mysterious hominin species that left behind substantial traces in our DNA but, so far, only a handful of tooth and bone remains—do share a common ancestor, it’s not apparent who it was. Homo heidelbergensis , a species that existed from 200,000 to 700,000 years ago, is a popular candidate. It appears that the African family tree of this species leads to Homo sapiens while a European branch leads to Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisovans.

More ancient DNA could help provide a clearer picture, but finding it is no sure bet. Unfortunately, the cold, dry and stable conditions best for long-term preservation aren’t common in Africa, and few ancient African human genomes have been sequenced that are older than 10,000 years.

“We currently have no ancient DNA from Africa that even comes near the timeframes of our evolution—a process that is likely to have largely taken place between 800,000 and 300,000 years ago,” says Eleanor Scerri, an archaeological scientist at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Germany.

300,000 Years Ago: Fossils Found of Oldest Homo sapiens

Homo Sapiens Skull Reconstruction

As the physical remains of actual ancient people, fossils tell us most about what they were like in life. But bones or teeth are still subject to a significant amount of interpretation. While human remains can survive after hundreds of thousands of years, scientists can’t always make sense of the wide range of morphological features they see to definitively classify the remains as Homo sapiens , or as different species of human relatives.

Fossils often boast a mixture of modern and primitive features, and those don’t evolve uniformly toward our modern anatomy. Instead, certain features seem to change in different places and times, suggesting separate clusters of anatomical evolution would have produced quite different looking people.

No scientists suggest that Homo sapiens first lived in what’s now Morocco, because so much early evidence for our species has been found in both South Africa and East Africa. But fragments of 300,000-year-old skulls, jaws, teeth and other fossils found at Jebel Irhoud , a rich site also home to advanced stone tools, are the oldest Homo sapiens remains yet found.

The remains of five individuals at Jebel Irhoud exhibit traits of a face that looks compellingly modern, mixed with other traits like an elongated brain case reminiscent of more archaic humans. The remains’ presence in the northwestern corner of Africa isn’t evidence of our origin point, but rather of how widely spread humans were across Africa even at this early date.

Other very old fossils often classified as early Homo sapiens come from Florisbad, South Africa (around 260,000 years old), and the Kibish Formation along Ethiopia’s Omo River (around 195,000 years old).

The 160,000-year-old skulls of two adults and a child at Herto, Ethiopia, were classified as the subspecies Homo sapiens idaltu because of slight morphological differences including larger size. But they are otherwise so similar to modern humans that some argue they aren’t a subspecies at all. A skull discovered at Ngaloba, Tanzania, also considered Homo sapiens , represents a 120,000-year-old individual with a mix of archaic traits and more modern aspects like smaller facial features and a further reduced brow.

Debate over the definition of which fossil remains represent modern humans, given these disparities, is common among experts. So much so that some seek to simplify the characterization by considering them part of a single, diverse group.

“The fact of the matter is that all fossils before about 40,000 to 100,000 years ago contain different combinations of so called archaic and modern features. It’s therefore impossible to pick and choose which of the older fossils are members of our lineage or evolutionary dead ends,” Scerri suggests. “The best model is currently one in which they are all early Homo sapiens , as their material culture also indicates.”

As Scerri references, African material culture shows a widespread shift some 300,000 years ago from clunky, handheld stone tools to the more refined blades and projectile points known as Middle Stone Age toolkits.

So when did fossils finally first show fully modern humans with all representative features? It’s not an easy answer. One skull (but only one of several) from Omo Kibish looks much like a modern human at 195,000 years old, while another found in Nigeria’s Iwo Eleru cave, appears very archaic, but is only 13,000 years old . These discrepancies illustrate that the process wasn’t linear, reaching some single point after which all people were modern humans.

300,000 Years Ago: Artifacts Show a Revolution in Tools

Stone Tools

Our ancestors used stone tools as long as 3.3 million years ago and by 1.75 million years ago they’d adopted the Acheulean culture , a suite of chunky handaxes and other cutting implements that remained in vogue for nearly 1.5 million years. As recently as 400,000 years ago, thrusting spears used during the hunt of large prey in what is now Germany were state of the art. But they could only be used up close, an obvious and sometimes dangerous limitation.

Even as they acquired the more modern anatomy seen in living humans, the ways our ancestors lived, and the tools they created, changed as well.

Humans took a leap in tool tech with the Middle Stone Age some 300,000 years ago by making those finely crafted tools with flaked points and attaching them to handles and spear shafts to greatly improve hunting prowess. Projectile points like those Potts and colleagues dated to 298,000 to 320,000 years old in southern Kenya were an innovation that suddenly made it possible to kill all manner of elusive or dangerous prey. “It ultimately changed how these earliest sapiens interacted with their ecosystems, and with other people,” says Potts.

Scrapers and awls, which could be used to work animal hides for clothing and to shave wood and other materials, appeared around this time. By at least 90,000 years ago barbed points made of bone— like those discovered at Katanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo —were used to spearfish

As with fossils, tool advancements appear in different places and times, suggesting that distinct groups of people evolved, and possibly later shared, these tool technologies. Those groups may include other humans who are not part of our own lineage.

Last year a collection including sophisticated stone blades was discovered near Chennai, India , and dated to at least 250,000 years ago. The presence of this toolkit in India so soon after modern humans appeared in Africa suggests that other species may have also invented them independently—or that some modern humans spread the technology by leaving Africa earlier than most current thinking suggests.

100,000 to 210,000 Years Ago: Fossils Show Homo sapiens Lived Outside of Africa

Skull From Qafzeh

Many genetic analyses tracing our roots back to Africa make it clear that Homo sapiens originated on that continent. But it appears that we had a tendency to wander from a much earlier era than scientists had previously suspected.

A jawbone found inside a collapsed cave on the slopes of Mount Carmel, Israel, reveals that modern humans dwelt there, alongside the Mediterranean, some 177,000 to 194,000 years ago. Not only are the jaw and teeth from Misliya Cave unambiguously similar to those seen in modern humans, they were found with sophisticated handaxes and flint tools.

Other finds in the region, including multiple individuals at Qafzeh, Israel, are dated later. They range from 100,000 to 130,000 years ago, suggesting a long presence for humans in the region. At Qafzeh, human remains were found with pieces of red ocher and ocher-stained tools in a site that has been interpreted as the oldest intentional human burial .

Among the limestone cave systems of southern China, more evidence has turned up from between 80,000 and 120,000 years ago. A 100,000-year-old jawbone, complete with a pair of teeth, from Zhirendong retains some archaic traits like a less prominent chin, but otherwise appears so modern that it may represent Homo sapiens . A cave at Daoxian yielded a surprising array of ancient teeth , barely distinguishable from our own, which suggest that Homo sapiens groups were already living very far from Africa from 80,000 to 120,000 years ago.

Even earlier migrations are possible; some believe evidence exists of humans reaching Europe as long as 210,000 years ago. While most early human finds spark some scholarly debate, few reach the level of the Apidima skull fragment, in southern Greece, which may be more than 200,000 years old and might possibly represent the earliest modern human fossil discovered outside of Africa. The site is steeped in controversy , however, with some scholars believing that the badly preserved remains look less those of our own species and more like Neanderthals, whose remains are found just a few feet away in the same cave. Others question the accuracy of the dating analysis undertaken at the site, which is tricky because the fossils have long since fallen out of the geological layers in which they were deposited.

While various groups of humans lived outside of Africa during this era, ultimately, they aren’t part of our own evolutionary story. Genetics can reveal which groups of people were our distant ancestors and which had descendants who eventually died out.

“Of course, there could be multiple out of Africa dispersals,” says Akey. “The question is whether they contributed ancestry to present day individuals and we can say pretty definitely now that they did not.”

50,000 to 60,000 Years Ago: Genes and Climate Reconstructions Show a Migration Out of Africa

Arabian Peninsula

All living non-Africans, from Europeans to Australia’s aboriginal people, can trace most of their ancestry to humans who were part of a landmark migration out of Africa beginning some 50,000 to 60,000 years ago , according to numerous genetic studies published in recent years. Reconstructions of climate suggest that lower sea levels created several advantageous periods for humans to leave Africa for the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East, including one about 55,000 years ago.

“Just by looking at DNA from present day individuals we’ve been able to infer a pretty good outline of human history,” Akey says. “A group dispersed out of Africa maybe 50 to 60 thousand years ago, and then that group traveled around the world and eventually made it to all habitable places of the world.”

While earlier African emigres to the Middle East or China may have interbred with some of the more archaic hominids still living at that time, their lineage appears to have faded out or been overwhelmed by the later migration.

15,000 to 40,000 Years Ago: Genetics and Fossils Show Homo sapiens Became the Only Surviving Human Species

Homo floresiensis

For most of our history on this planet, Homo sapiens have not been the only humans. We coexisted, and as our genes make clear frequently interbred with various hominin species, including some we haven’t yet identified. But they dropped off, one by one, leaving our own species to represent all humanity. On an evolutionary timescale, some of these species vanished only recently.

On the Indonesian island of Flores, fossils evidence a curious and diminutive early human species nicknamed “hobbit.” Homo floresiensis appear to have been living until perhaps 50,000 years ago, but what happened to them is a mystery. They don’t appear to have any close relation to modern humans including the Rampasasa pygmy group, which lives in the same region today.

Neanderthals once stretched across Eurasia from Portugal and the British Isles to Siberia. As Homo sapiens became more prevalent across these areas the Neanderthals faded in their turn, being generally consigned to history by some 40,000 years ago. Some evidence suggests that a few die-hards might have held on in enclaves, like Gibraltar, until perhaps 29,000 years ago. Even today traces of them remain because modern humans carry Neanderthal DNA in their genome .

Our more mysterious cousins, the Denisovans, left behind so few identifiable fossils that scientists aren’t exactly sure what they looked like, or if they might have been more than one species. A recent study of human genomes in Papua New Guinea suggests that humans may have lived with and interbred with Denisovans there as recently as 15,000 years ago, though the claims are controversial. Their genetic legacy is more certain. Many living Asian people inherited perhaps 3 to 5 percent of their DNA from the Denisovans.

Despite the bits of genetic ancestry they contributed to living people, all of our close relatives eventually died out, leaving Homo sapiens as the only human species. Their extinctions add one more intriguing, perhaps unanswerable question to the story of our evolution—why were we the only humans to survive?

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Brian Handwerk | READ MORE

Brian Handwerk is a science correspondent based in Amherst, New Hampshire.

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Groups of modern humans— Homo sapiens —began their migration out of Africa some 60,000 years ago. Some of our early ancestors kept exploring until they spread to all corners of Earth. How far and fast they went depended on climate , the pressures of population , and the invention of boats and other technologies. Less tangible qualities also sped their footsteps: imagination, adaptability, and an innate curiosity about what lay over the next hill.

Today, geneticists are doing their own exploring. Their studies have led them to a gene variation that might point to our propensity for risk-taking, movement, change, and adventure. This gene variant, known as DRD4-7R, is carried by approximately 20 percent of the human population . Several studies tie 7R (and other variants of the DRD4 gene ) to migration . ( Genetics is complex, however. Different groups of genes interact and yield diverse results in different individuals. DRD4-7R probably influences, not causes, our tendency toward “restlessness.”)

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Is there anything cuter than a girl with a jellyfish head? Here’s how to complete Long Journey in Once Human .

If you head south past Rippleby, you’ll find a weeping girl on the beach. She’s a Deviant , but she’s really not hostile at all. Speak to her, and she’ll explain that she’s waiting for her dad, and they were meant to go around and take pictures together. She asks you to do it in his place. Agree, and this will jumpstart the quest Long Journey in Once Human .

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The first location we’ll need to go to is the Wind Farm, just east of Rippleby. This location doesn’t have much there beyond a few Vultures and a windmill, but you’ll find that simply killing these enemies and standing there won’t summon the Jellyfish Girl.

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Instead, you’ll need to open your inventory, go into your quest menu, which has an icon that looks like a notepad with a star on it. Interact with the Aqua Bell to summon her. It turns out her name is Bella! Get it, like a bell jellyfish? Anyway. Interacting with the Aqua Bell will cause Bella to appear in front of the windmill. She’ll then ask you to take her picture.

Image of the camera menu with the reticle focused on a girl with a jellyfish head in front of a windmill

To take pictures in Once Human , you’ll need to press tab, as if you were summoning V. Then, move your cursor over camera. Once the camera is open, focus the cursor on Bella so a box appears around her, and the words “Glass Jellyfish” show above her head. When you see this, press enter.

Once you’ve successfully summoned and taken a picture of her, it’s off to the next destination, which is a field with a scarecrow. Make sure you have your quest markers on and tracking, as this will create a blue chevorn that marks your next destination. Take another picture of Bella, and she’ll ask you to take her to Aiden’s Garage roof.

Related: How To Find All Gaia Cliff Crates in Once Human

To get on the roof of Aiden’s Garage, you’ll need to climb the crates on the back. This will let you reach the roof, and you’ll find a bonfire and some chairs nearby.

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Summon her and speak with her, and she’ll give you one last destination to go to: a cemetery in Brookham. Arrive there and summon her, and this will be the sad end of Long Journey. But if you want to make yourself feel better, why not grab a free Gingerbread House Deviant ?

Once Human is available to play now .

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Summary of Kahneman’s “Thinking, Fast and Slow”

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Daniel kahneman is a nobel laureate in economics who is a psychologist by training. he won the prize mostly for his work in decision making, specifically prospect theory. this book distills a lifetime of work on the engine of human thinking, highlighting our cognitive biases and showing both the brilliance and limitations of the human mind. this summary attempts to capture some of the more interesting findings..

By Daniel Kahneman Review by  Mark Looi (republished from marklooi.medium.com)

« Tools and the Development of Contemporary Society

(Excerpts and quotes are from: Daniel Kahneman. Thinking, Fast and Slow. Apple Books. )

Kahneman writes the book as a lay person’s introduction to experimental psychology and summarizes some of the major results of the past 40 years. In doing so, he gives a high level description of the scientific method as applied in social science, the art of creating hypotheses, the clever experiments to test them, and a little about how the data are analyzed. He shows how slowly but surely, in conjunction with many researchers around the globe, our understanding of human thinking has advanced.

He also recounts the impressive history of the field, going back to great rational thinkers, Bernoulli (of the famous Bernoulli Equation) and David Hume, the Scottish philosopher.

In the end, Kahneman shows that our brains are highly evolved to perform many tasks with great efficiency, but they are often ill-suited to accurately carry out other mental tasks; in fact, our thinking is riddled with behavioral fallacies. Consequently, we are at risk of manipulation not usually of the overt kind, but by nudges and small increments. Indeed we have learned that by exploiting these weaknesses in the way our brains process information, social media platforms, governments, media in general, and populist leaders, are able exercise a form of collective mind control.

It’s also clear that the bugs in our personal thinking systems are being exploit faster than patches can be applied!

Two Systems

Kahneman introduces two characters that animate the mind:

  • “System 1 operates automatically and quickly, with little or no effort and no sense of voluntary control.
  • System 2 allocates attention to the effortful mental activities that demand it, including complex computations. The operations of System 2 are often associated with the subjective experience of agency, choice, and concentration.”

These two systems somehow co-exist in the human brain and together help us navigate life; they aren’t literal or physical, but conceptual. System 1 is an intuitive system that cannot be turned off; it helps us perform most of the cognitive tasks that everyday life requires, such as identify threats, navigate our way home on familiar roads, know that 2+2=4, recognize friends, and so on. System 2 can help us analyze complex problems, do math exercises, do crossword puzzles, and so on. Even though System 2 is useful, it takes effort and energy to engage it. So, it tends to take shortcuts at the behest of System 1. For example, the syllogism,

  • All roses are flowers.
  • Some flowers fade quickly.
  • Therefore, some roses fade quickly.

is considered by a large majority of college students to be correct. Of course, it isn’t. We get fooled because intuitively we know that roses fade. But this syllogism is not a statement about the world; it’s about logical relationships. The energy required by System 2 to fully analyze the statements is relatively high; System 1 jumps to the conclusion that the conclusion is true and convinces System 2. It turns out that when people first come to believe a false statement, they are very likely to believe arguments that support it; this is the basis for confirmation bias.

According to Kahneman, these are the “Characteristics of System 1:

  • generates impressions, feelings, and inclinations; when endorsed by System 2 these become beliefs, attitudes, and intentions
  • operates automatically and quickly, with little or no effort, and no sense of voluntary control
  • can be programmed by System 2 to mobilize attention when a particular pattern is detected (search)
  • executes skilled responses and generates skilled intuitions, after adequate training
  • creates a coherent pattern of activated ideas in associative memory
  • links a sense of cognitive ease to illusions of truth, pleasant feelings, and reduced vigilance
  • distinguishes the surprising from the normal
  • infers and invents causes and intentions
  • neglects ambiguity and suppresses doubt
  • is biased to believe and confirm exaggerates emotional consistency (halo effect)
  • focuses on existing evidence and ignores absent evidence (WYSIATI) generates a limited set of basic assessments
  • represents sets by norms and prototypes, does not integrate
  • matches intensities across scales (e.g., size to loudness)
  • computes more than intended (mental shotgun)
  • sometimes substitutes an easier question for a difficult one (heuristics)
  • is more sensitive to changes than to states (prospect theory)*
  • overweights low probabilities*
  • shows diminishing sensitivity to quantity (psychophysics)*
  • responds more strongly to losses than to gains (loss aversion)*
  • frames decision problems narrowly, in isolation from on another”

What now follows are a summary of the major fallacies that Kahneman identifies.

Our minds are wonderful associative machines, allowing us to easily associate words like “lime” with “green”. Because of this, we are susceptible to priming, in which a common association is invoked to move us in a particular direction or action. This is the basis for “nudges” and advertising using positive imagery.

Cognitive Ease

Whatever is easier for System 2 is more likely to be believed. Ease arises from idea repetition, clear display, a primed idea, and even one’s own good mood. It turns out that even the repetition of a falsehood can lead people to accept it, despite knowing it’s untrue, since the concept becomes familiar and is cognitively easy to process.

Jumping to Conclusions

Our System 1 is “a machine for jumping to conclusions” by basing its conclusion on “What You See Is All There Is” (WYSIATI). WYSIATI is the tendency for System 1 to draw conclusions based on the readily available, sometimes misleading information and then, once made, to believe in those conclusions fervently. The measured impact of halo effects, confirmation bias, framing effects, and base-rate neglect are aspects of jumping to conclusions in practice. One example is confirmation bias, where we are more open to and looking for evidence that supports our beliefs, rather than what doesn’t. Rationally, we should look for evidence that contradicts beliefs since that will subject our belief system to greater scrutiny. But outside of the rigors of pure science, such an approach is uncommon. (In the sciences, one methodology is to construct a so-called null hypothesis, the reject of which proves the original claim.)

Answering an Easier Question

Often when dealing with a complex or difficult issue, we transform the question into an easier one that we can answer. In other words, we use a heuristic ; for example, when asked “How happy are you with life”, we answer the question, “What is my mood now”. While these heuristics (which enjoys the same root as the word “eureka”) can be useful, they often lead to incorrect conclusions.

Law of Small Numbers

We have an exaggerated faith in small samples, but our tendency to seek patterns and explanation leads us to a causal explanation of chance events that are wrong or unsupportable. Even researchers like Kahneman himself fall prey to the inadequacy of sample size in their research.

Anchoring is a form of priming the mind with an expectation. An example are the questions: “Is the height of the tallest redwood more or less than x feet? What is your best guess about the height of the tallest redwood?” When x was 1200, answers to the second question was 844; when x was 180, the answer was 282.

Availability

The bias of Availability occurs when we take into account a salient event, a recent experience, or something that’s particularly vivid to us, to make our judgments. People who are guided by System 1 are more susceptible to the Availability bias than others; in particular:

  • when they are engaged in another effortful task at the same time
  • when they are in a good mood because they just thought of a happy episode in their life
  • if they score low on a depression scale
  • if they are knowledgeable novices on the topic of the task, in contrast to true experts
  • when they score high on a scale of faith in intuition
  • if they are (or are made to feel) powerful

Representativeness

Representativeness is where we use stereotypes to help us judge probabilities. For example, “you see a person reading The New York Times on the subway. Which of the following is a better bet about the reading stranger? 1) She has a PhD. 2) She does not have a college degree.” The sin of representativeness is where we might pick the second answer, even though the probability of PhDs on the subway is far less than people without degrees. Though a simple example, one way to resist the temptation of representativeness is to consider the base rate (in this case, the rate of PhDs vs. non-PhDs) and make the judgment from that.

Less is More

Given the description, “Linda is thirty-one years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations. Which alternative is more probable?

  • Linda is a bank teller.
  • Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement.”

In this case, the additional detail that Linda is “active in the feminist movement” in answer 2., only serves to make the probability lower, since it imposes more constraints. But, because of the accompanying narrative, we like the second option, even though it is less likely. This is why Less is More.

Causes Trump Statistics

The finding from a number of researchers is that people are poor statistical reasoners and they have limited ability to think in Bayesian terms, even when supplied with obviously relevant background data. Bayesian inference is the widely used method to reason about likelihoods given a prior known condition. For example, he uses the example:

“A cab was involved in a hit-and-run accident at night. Two cab companies, the Green and the Blue, operate in the city.

  • 85% of the cabs in the city are Green and 15% are Blue.
  • A witness identified the cab as Blue. The court tested the reliability of the witness under the circumstances that existed on the night of the accident and concluded that the witness correctly identified each one of the two colors 80% of the time and failed 20% of the time.

What is the probability that the cab involved in the accident was Blue rather than Green?”

Apparently a lot of people ignore the first fact, which defines the base rate of Green and Blue cabs. Kahneman doesn’t go into much detail about how to make the calculations, but it is an application of Bayes’ Rule. To wit,

A = Cab is blue, B = Cab is identified as blue; therefore, ⌐A = Cab is green, ⌐B = Cab is identified as green. So, we have:

P(A) = 0.15, P(⌐A) = 0.85, P(B|A) = 0.8, P(⌐B|⌐A) = 0.8, P(B|⌐A)= 0.2, P(⌐B|A) = 0.2

Thus, we want to know, P(A|B) = P(B|A)*P(A)/P(B) , i.e., the probability that the cab was blue rather than green (and mistakenly identified).

And, we know from the Theorem of Total Probability that P(B) = P(B|A)*P(A) + P(B|⌐A)*P*(⌐A) . Therefore, substituting, we get:

0.8*0.15/[0.8*0.15 + 0.2 *0.85] = 0.41, or 41%.

This Bayesian reasoning comes up in many practical situations, such as calculating medical diagnosis of an individual, where there is a base rate of a disease in a population and a test which is, for example, 95% effective at identifying the disease.

Kahneman quotes two famous social scientists (Nisbett and Borgida):

“Subjects’ unwillingness to deduce the particular from the general was matched only by their willingness to infer the general from the particular.”

Regression to the Mean

Regression to the mean is the statistical fact that any sequence of trials will eventually converge to the expected value (i.e., the mean). Unfortunately, we often look for causal reasons to explain lucky streaks and other sequences of seemingly meaningful numbers. When further embellished by other details like a “hot hand”, we tend to find causal explanations.

Kahneman goes on to describe still more mental shortcomings, such as:

  • Illusion of understanding: we construct narratives to aid in understanding and to make sense of the world. We look for causality where none exists.
  • Illusion of validity: pundits, stock pickers and other experts develop an outsized sense of expertise.
  • Expert intuition: algorithms, even seemingly primitive ones, applied with discipline often outdo experts.
  • Planning fallacy: this fallacy afflicts many professions and stem from plans and forecasts that are unrealistically close to best case; and, do not take into account the actual results of similar projects.
  • Optimism and the Entrepreneurial Delusion: most people are overconfident, tend to neglect competitors, and believe they will outperform the average.

Bernoulli, Expected Utility and Prospect Theory

Kahneman criticizes Bernoulli, who nearly 250 years ago propounded Utility Theory, which in essence explains people’s choices and motivations by the utility of the outcomes. But choices were not just the mathematically determined expected value, but on a psychological value, the utility. Here, people act in risk averse ways, preferring sure bets to risks, even bets that are mathematically equivalent (e.g., winning $500 outright; or a 50% chance at $1000). Further, utility is relative to the wealth or poverty of the individual. And, it explains why all other things equal, a poorer person will buy insurance to transfer the risk of loss to a richer one. So far, so good.

However, Kahneman points out that Bernoulli’s theory breaks down because it doesn’t take into account the initial reference state. For example,

“Anthony’s current wealth is 1 million. Betty’s current wealth is 4 million.

They are both offered a choice between a gamble and a sure thing.

The gamble: equal chances to end up owning 1 million or 4 million; or, the sure thing: own 2 million for sure.

In Bernoulli’s account, Anthony and Betty face the same choice: their expected wealth will be 2.5 million if they take the gamble and 2 million if they prefer the sure-thing option. Bernoulli would therefore expect Anthony and Betty to make the same choice, but this prediction is incorrect. Here again, the theory fails because it does not allow for the different reference points from which Anthony and Betty consider their options.”

Betty stands to lose a lot of her wealth and will be unhappy regardless. Anthony is elated because he gains, also regardless.

“In Bernoulli’s theory you need to know only the state of wealth to determine its utility, but in prospect theory you also need to know the reference state,” that is, the initial conditions. They also describe the loss aversion of most people and when confronted with the prospect of losses, people will take on more risk in an effort to avoid the loss, even if mathematically, they would be no better or even worse off. This explains why people caught in desperate situations seem to engage in riskier behavior: “people who face very bad options take desperate gambles, accepting a high probability of making things worse in exchange for a small hope of avoiding a large loss.”

Endowment Effect

Most people are familiar with one aspect of the endowment effect, the sunk cost fallacy. With experience and training, people like traders can overcome the sunk cost or endowment effect. The key difference seems to be whether or not goods are held for trading or for use. In the latter case, the sunk cost or endowment effects are larger.

Loss Aversion

Another measured phenomenon is loss aversion. It permeates much of life, including regulations and reforms that make remove benefits from one group in favor of another, even though it may result in an overall increase in utility.

People Aren’t Rational

The standard treatment of actors in economics is to assume rationality. But, it turns out people are not entirely rational. They generally prefer sure things; they have a propensity to value the elimination of risk over that of rationally reducing it to an acceptable level. People attach value to gains and losses (i.e., the change) rather than to wealth itself.

The Fourfold Pattern

Prospect Theory is summarized in the following table:

human journey summary

Kahneman says it best:

  • “The top left is the one that Bernoulli discussed: people are averse to risk when they consider prospects with a substantial chance to achieve a large gain. They are willing to accept less than the expected value of a gamble to lock in a sure gain.
  • The possibility effect in the bottom left cell explains why lotteries are popular. When the top prize is very large, ticket buyers appear indifferent to the fact that their chance of winning is minuscule. …
  • The bottom right cell is where insurance is bought. People are willing to pay much more for insurance than expected value — which is how insurance companies cover their costs and make their profits. … they eliminate a worry and purchase peace of mind. …
  • Many unfortunate human situations unfold in the top right cell. This is where people who face very bad options take desperate gambles, accepting a high probability of making things worse in exchange for a small hope of avoiding a large loss. Risk taking of this kind often turns manageable failures into disasters. The thought of accepting the large sure loss is too painful, and the hope of complete relief too enticing, to make the sensible decision that it is time to cut one’s losses. This is where businesses that are losing ground to a superior technology waste their remaining assets in futile attempts to catch up. Because defeat is so difficult to accept, the losing side in wars often fights long past the point at which the victory of the other side is certain, and only a matter of time.”

Frames of Reference

How a problem is framed makes a big difference in perceptions and solutions. He illustrates it with the famous MPG Illusion. “Consider two car owners who seek to reduce their costs:

  • Adam switches from a gas-guzzler of 12 mpg to a slightly less voracious guzzler that runs at 14 mpg.
  • The environmentally virtuous Beth switches from a 30 mpg car to one that runs at 40 mpg.

Suppose both drivers travel equal distances over a year. Who will save more gas by switching? You almost certainly share the widespread intuition that Beth’s action is more significant than Adam’s: she reduced mpg by 10 miles rather than 2, and by a third (from 30 to 40) rather than a sixth (from 12 to 14). Now engage your System 2 and work it out. If the two car owners both drive 10,000 miles, Adam will reduce his consumption from a scandalous 833 gallons to a still shocking 714 gallons, for a saving of 119 gallons. Beth’s use of fuel will drop from 333 gallons to 250, saving only 83 gallons. The mpg frame is wrong, and it should be replaced by the gallons-per-mile frame (or liters-per–100 kilometers, which is used in most other countries). As Larrick and Soll point out, the misleading intuitions fostered by the mpg frame are likely to mislead policy makers as well as car buyers.”

Overweighting the Recent

People tend to overweight recent experiences and the positive or negative perception of one is disproportionately determined by the last episodes of the entire experience. So, a vacation that starts out badly but has a pleasant ending is likely to be remembered favorably; the opposite sequence may undermine the overall experience, even if objectively the bad parts were of no greater duration in either case.

Kahneman’s book is an important summary for the general reader of the advances in behavioral psychology in the past 40 years. The main criticism could be that he split hairs and applies a precise interpretation to questions like the Linda problem which normal people in everyday life would not. In fact, people use their contextual and cultural knowledge to form insights that go beyond the obvious facts of the case. This would be the simplest most sympathetic explanation of the Linda problem or Less is More . Indeed, parsing statements too precisely is often considered a faux pas or a suggestion of a lack of social skills. For example, taking to task someone for using the word “literally” for “figuratively” seems pedantic today. Yet, this is the nature of science: to ask precise questions so as to successively narrow down what remains ambiguous.

Kahneman shows the rational animal favored by Plato, Aristotle, and the Enlightenment, in a different light: a product of our evolutionary environment and in many ways ill-equipped to deal with a rational, science-based, logical world. Worse, we are at constant risk of repeating the same cognitive errors and biases, easily manipulated, and riven by irrational beliefs and fears. In a reality that’s dominated by science and statistics, most of humankind lacks the basic knowledge and experience to thrive. In fact, a tiny minority with those capabilities are able to manipulate the others and command great wealth.

In the series: Tools and the Development of Contemporary Society

  • Evolutionary, Historical, and Contemporary Perspectives
  • Our Digital World
  • Summary: Kahneman’s “Thinking, Fast and Slow”

Related articles:

  • Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States
  • The Axemakers Gift: Technology’s Capture and Control of Our Minds and Culture
  • The Age of Surveillance Capitalism
  • Guns, Germs, and Steel The Fates of Human Societies
  • 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus
  • 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created
  • The Evolution of Social Networking
  • What is an Algorithm?
  • The Great Attention Heist
  • The Marketplace of Ideas
  • Algorithmic Gatekeepers
  • Hacking Human Minds
  • You Can’t Not Believe Everything You Read

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10 November 2012

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The Divine Comedy by Dante, Illustrated, Purgatory, Complete Informative Summary

human journey summary

Dante, guided by the poet Virgil, continues his journey through the afterlife, this time entering the realm of Purgatory. This realm is a mountain that rises from a sea, where souls are cleansed of their sins before ascending to Heaven. Dante and Virgil are aided by angels and other souls who are themselves undergoing purification. The journey takes Dante through various circles of Purgatory, each representing a particular sin. The souls within these circles are tested and suffer accordingly, but they also exhibit hope and desire for redemption.

Dante is exposed to a variety of concepts within Purgatory, from theological arguments to philosophical discussions. He encounters historical figures who have been punished for their sins, and learns about their lives and regrets. The journey becomes a process of self-discovery for Dante, as he confronts his own sins and shortcomings, and ultimately learns the importance of humility, faith, and divine love.

Key findings:

  • The concept of Purgatory:  Dante explores the idea of Purgatory as a place of cleansing and purification, a necessary step for souls to achieve Heaven.
  • The nature of sin:  Dante encounters various sins and their consequences within the circles of Purgatory, highlighting the importance of repentance and redemption.
  • The importance of divine love:  The journey emphasizes the power of divine love to transform individuals and bring about redemption.
  • The significance of faith:  Dante’s encounters with different spirits underscore the role of faith in overcoming sin and achieving salvation.
  • The beauty of the natural world:  Dante’s journey through Purgatory showcases the beauty of the natural world, as a reflection of God’s creation and a symbol of hope and renewal.
  • The journey through Purgatory offers a framework for understanding the process of repentance and redemption:  By witnessing the experiences of different souls, Dante and the reader learn how to confront sin and work towards spiritual purification.
  • The importance of acknowledging and confronting our sins is central to spiritual growth:  The text emphasizes that acknowledging our faults and seeking forgiveness are essential steps in becoming closer to God.
  • The power of love, both human and divine, can help us overcome sin and achieve salvation:  Dante’s encounter with Beatrice and other figures emphasizes that love and compassion can guide us towards a more virtuous life.
  • The natural world reflects God’s creation and offers symbols of hope and renewal:  The imagery of the mountain, the forest, and the river in Purgatory symbolize the transformative power of God’s grace and the possibility of spiritual rebirth.

Historical context:

Dante wrote  The Divine Comedy  in the early 14th century, a period of political and social upheaval in Italy. The text reflects the cultural and religious influences of his time, including the rise of the Papacy and the growing influence of scholastic philosophy. Dante’s journey through Purgatory can be seen as a commentary on the moral and spiritual state of his society, with its emphasis on the importance of justice and righteousness.

  • The location of Purgatory is a mountain that rises from a sea:  The mountain is a symbol of the journey towards Heaven, and the sea represents the difficulties and challenges we face in life.
  • The mountain has seven circles, each representing a particular sin:  These circles represent the different ways in which we can fall short of God’s grace and require purification.
  • The souls in Purgatory are cleansed of their sins through suffering and penance:  This suffering is not punitive but a necessary step towards purification.
  • Angels serve as guides and protectors in Purgatory:  These angels represent the divine guidance and help available to us in our journey toward salvation.
  • Dante encounters historical figures who have been punished for their sins:  These encounters offer insights into the consequences of sin and the importance of repentance.
  • Dante is accompanied by the Roman poet Virgil:  Virgil represents human reason and serves as Dante’s guide through the afterlife.
  • Dante is eventually reunited with Beatrice, who symbolizes divine love and wisdom:  Beatrice represents the ultimate goal of Dante’s journey, and her love guides him toward salvation.
  • Dante learns that the world is corrupted by sin and the lack of proper governance:  This observation reflects the social and political conditions of Dante’s time.
  • The Church is criticized for its corruption and the mixing of temporal and spiritual power:  Dante expresses his own disillusionment with the Church and its role in society.
  • The text highlights the importance of free will and the responsibility we have for our actions:  This concept is central to Dante’s exploration of the nature of sin and redemption.
  • The natural world is seen as a reflection of God’s creation and a symbol of hope and renewal:  Dante uses the imagery of the mountain, the forest, and the river to symbolize the beauty and power of God’s grace.
  • Dante is ultimately cleansed of his sins and prepared for Heaven:  The journey through Purgatory is a process of spiritual transformation that culminates in Dante’s readiness to enter Paradise.
  • The concept of Purgatory is a central theme throughout the text:  Dante explores the idea of Purgatory as a necessary step for souls to achieve Heaven, and his journey through this realm represents the process of spiritual purification.
  • Dante encounters various sins and their consequences within the circles of Purgatory:  These encounters highlight the importance of repentance and redemption and the role of suffering in the purification process.
  • The importance of divine love is emphasized throughout the text:  Dante’s encounters with Beatrice and other figures emphasize the power of divine love to transform individuals and bring about redemption.
  • Dante’s encounters with different spirits underscore the role of faith in overcoming sin and achieving salvation:  This theme is explored through the interactions between Dante, Virgil, and the various souls in Purgatory.
  • The beauty of the natural world is used as a symbol of hope and renewal in Purgatory:  Dante uses the imagery of the mountain, the forest, and the river to symbolize the transformative power of God’s grace.
  • The journey of Dante through Purgatory is a process of self-discovery:  He confronts his own sins and shortcomings, and ultimately learns the importance of humility, faith, and divine love.
  • Dante’s  The Divine Comedy  reflects the cultural and religious influences of his time:  The text provides insights into the social and political conditions of 14th-century Italy, and the rise of the Papacy and scholastic philosophy.
  • The text explores the concept of justice, both divine and human:  Dante’s journey through Purgatory examines the consequences of sin and the importance of righteous living.
  • Dante’s  The Divine Comedy  can be seen as a commentary on the moral and spiritual state of society:  The text highlights the importance of humility, repentance, and divine grace in achieving salvation.

Statistics:

  • Five hundred years and more:  The spirit in Canto XXI states that he had lain in Purgatory for at least 500 years.
  • Three months:  Casella, the spirit Dante encounters in Canto II, states that he has been denied passage through Purgatory for the past three months.
  • Thirty-fold:  The souls in Purgatory who die in contumacy against the church must wander for thirty times the length of their presumption on earth.
  • Seven times:  The spirit in Canto VIII tells Dante that his opinion will be nailed into his brain by the time the sun revisits a certain point seven times.
  • Seven:  The number of circles in Purgatory is seven.
  • Two:  The number of torches that Dante sees in Canto IX, which represent the four stars he saw earlier in the morning.
  • Three:  The number of steps leading to the gate of Purgatory, each of a different color.
  • Seventy:  The number of steps Dante ascends in Canto VII before reaching the valley of the princes.
  • Three:  The number of steps Dante must climb in Canto XV to reach a new ladder.
  • Five hundred and ten:  The number of years until the arrival of a savior who will slay the dragon and its accomplice.
  • Ten:  The number of paces separating the seven flames from the twenty-four elders in Canto XXIX.
  • Twenty-four:  The number of elders who appear in Canto XXIX.
  • Four:  The number of animals who follow the elders in Canto XXIX.
  • Six:  The number of wings on each of the animals in Canto XXIX.
  • Three:  The number of nymphs who dance at the right wheel of the chariot in Canto XXIX.
  • Four:  The number of spirits who dance at the left wheel in Canto XXIX.
  • Three:  The number of eyes on the leader of the left wheel in Canto XXIX.
  • Four:  The number of spirits who follow the leader of the left wheel in Canto XXIX.
  • Seven:  The number of elders who follow the four spirits in Canto XXIX.
  • Three:  The number of heads on the transformed chariot in Canto XXX.
  • Purgatory:  The second realm of the afterlife, where souls are cleansed of their sins before entering Heaven.
  • Circle:  One of the seven divisions of Purgatory, each representing a specific sin.
  • Purgatorial fire:  The fire of Purgatory, which is not punitive but serves to purify souls.
  • Angel:  A celestial being who serves as a guide and protector in Purgatory.
  • Virtues:  Moral qualities or strengths, such as faith, hope, and charity.
  • Free will:  The ability of human beings to make their own choices, independent of external influences.
  • Grace:  Divine favor or assistance that helps us to overcome sin and achieve salvation.
  • Lethe:  The river of forgetfulness in Purgatory, which washes away memories of sin.
  • Eunoe:  The river of remembrance in Purgatory, which restores memories of good deeds.
  • Dante’s encounter with Casella in Canto II  demonstrates the importance of music and beauty in the afterlife. Casella, a musician, is able to soothe Dante’s weary spirit with a song, highlighting the power of art and beauty to transcend earthly limitations.
  • Dante’s encounter with Manfredi in Canto III  is a key example of the process of repentance and redemption in Purgatory. Manfredi, who died excommunicated, is being punished for his sins but is also shown to be in a state of hope and seeking forgiveness.
  • The encounter with Sordello in Canto VI  serves as a lament for the state of Italy, which Dante sees as politically divided and morally corrupt. Sordello represents the noble past of Italy, and his lament for his homeland reflects Dante’s own concerns about the state of his society.
  • Dante’s encounter with Nino in Canto VIII  highlights the role of justice and the importance of seeking forgiveness for our sins. Nino, a judge who died prematurely, is being punished for his sins but is also shown to be seeking redemption.
  • The encounter with Omberto in Canto XI  serves as a cautionary tale about the dangers of pride and the importance of humility. Omberto, who died excommunicated, is being punished for his pride and the sins of his family.
  • Dante’s encounter with Buonconte in Canto V  emphasizes the power of prayer and the importance of seeking divine forgiveness. Buonconte, a warrior, is being punished for his sins and is shown to be seeking redemption through the prayers of those on Earth.
  • The encounter with the spirits of envy in Canto XIII  demonstrates the destructive power of envy and the importance of charity. These spirits are punished for their envy and are shown to be seeking forgiveness through acts of kindness and compassion.
  • Dante’s encounter with Oderigi in Canto XI  illustrates the fleeting nature of earthly fame and the importance of pursuing spiritual growth. Oderigi, a painter, is being punished for his pride and is shown to have achieved a deeper understanding of the nature of art and its limitations.
  • The encounter with the spirits of avarice in Canto XXII  highlights the destructive power of greed and the importance of generosity. These spirits are punished for their avarice and are shown to be seeking redemption through acts of charity and selflessness.
  • The encounter with the spirits of lust in Canto XXVI  demonstrates the dangers of uncontrolled desire and the importance of chastity. These spirits are punished for their lust and are shown to be seeking forgiveness through acts of repentance and self-control.

Conclusion:

Dante’s  Purgatory  offers a compelling exploration of the human condition and the complexities of sin and redemption. Through his journey, Dante encounters a wide range of characters and confronts his own failings, ultimately gaining a deeper understanding of the importance of humility, faith, and divine love. The text provides valuable insights into the process of spiritual growth and the possibility of achieving salvation.

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IMAGES

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  2. The Human Journey by ICCF Youth Group on Prezi

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  3. The Human Journey by Darlene Everitt on Prezi

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  4. The Human Journey by Anthony Truong on Prezi

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  5. Mapping human's journey

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  6. The Human Journey Map

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VIDEO

  1. The Historical Significance of The Human Journey

  2. A human journey to happiness

  3. Journey of Human 😱 #shorts #viral

  4. The Human Journey

  5. #human journey Past present and future changes

  6. Human journey past to present 🌎 #youtubeshorts #shortvideo #viral #subscribe

COMMENTS

  1. The Incredible Human Journey

    The Incredible Human Journey is a five-episode, 300-minute, science documentary film presented by Alice Roberts, based on her book by the same name.The film was first broadcast on BBC television in May and June 2009 in the UK. It explains the evidence for the theory of early human migrations out of Africa and subsequently around the world, supporting the Out of Africa Theory.

  2. The Human Journey: A Concise Introduction To World History

    The Human Journey offers a truly concise yet satisfyingly full history of the world from ancient times to the present. The book's scope, as the title implies, is the whole story of humanity, in planetary context. Its themes include not only the great questions of the humanities-nature

  3. The Human Journey : A Concise Introduction to World History

    The Human Journey offers a truly concise yet satisfyingly full history of the world from ancient times to the present. The book's scope, as the title implies, is the whole story of humanity, in planetary context. Its themes include not only the great questions of the humanities—nature versus nurture, the history and meaning of human variation, the sources of wealth and causes of revolution ...

  4. Holt World History: The Human Journey Summary

    Complete summary of Rheinhart Holt's Holt World History: The Human Journey. eNotes plot summaries cover all the significant action of Holt World History: The Human Journey.

  5. An Evolutionary Timeline of Homo Sapiens

    The long evolutionary journey that created modern humans began with a single step—or more accurately—with the ability to walk on two legs. One of our earliest-known ancestors, Sahelanthropus ...

  6. The Incredible Human Journey Part 1

    The Incredible Human Journey is a five-episode science documentary and accompanying book, written and presented by Alice Roberts. It was first broadcast on B...

  7. PDF The Human Journey

    Patterns of human variation: mitochondrial DNA and the Y-chromosome (05:31-06:36 min.) The earliest man and theories of African origins (06:37-08:16 min.) A map of human migration over time (08:17-09:14 min.) The Journey of Man and the beginning of The Genographic Project (09:15-11:22 min.) Public participation and the Legacy Fund (11:23-12:48 ...

  8. The Human Journey

    The Human Journey offers a truly concise yet satisfyingly full history of the world from ancient times to the present. The book's scope, as the title implies, is the whole story of humanity, in planetary context. Its themes include not only the great questions of the humanities—nature versus nurture, the history and meaning of human variation, the sources of wealth and causes of revolution ...

  9. The Human Journey

    The Human Journey offers a truly concise yet satisfyingly full history of the world from ancient times to the present. The book's scope, as the title implies, is the whole story of humanity, in planetary context. Its themes include not only the great questions of the humanities--nature vs. nurture, the history and meaning of human variation, the sources of wealth and causes of revolution--but ...

  10. Global Human Journey

    Once modern humans began their migration out of Africa some 60,000 years ago, they kept going until they had spread to all corners of the Earth. Failed to fetch. The video above is from the January 2013 iPad edition of National Geographic magazine. Groups of modern humans— Homo sapiens —began their migration out of Africa some 60,000 years ago.

  11. The Human Journey: A Concise Introduction to World History: Reilly

    The Human Journey offers a truly concise yet satisfyingly full history of the world from ancient times to the present. The book's scope, as the title implies, is the whole story of humanity, in planetary context.

  12. How to Complete Long Journey in Once Human

    Agree, and this will jumpstart the quest Long Journey in Once Human. Screenshots by The Escapist. The first location we'll need to go to is the Wind Farm, just east of Rippleby. This location ...

  13. The Human Journey: A Concise Introduction to World History

    The Human Journey offers a truly concise yet satisfyingly full history of the world from ancient times to the present. The book's scope, as the title implies, is the whole story of humanity, in planetary context. Its themes include not only the great questions of the humanities-nature versus nurture, the history and meaning of human variation, the sources of wealth and causes of revolution-but ...

  14. The human journey : a concise introduction to world history

    The Human Journey offers a truly concise yet satisfying full history of the world from ancient times to the present. Its themes include not only the great questions of the humanities--nature versus nurture, the history and meaning of human variation, the sources of wealth, and causes of revolution--but also the major transformations in human ...

  15. The Human Journey by Kevin Reilly

    The Human Journey offers a truly concise yet satisfyingly full history of the world from ancient times to the present. The book's scope, as the title implies, is the whole story of humanity, in planetary context. Its themes include not only the great questions of the humanities—nature versus nurture, the history and meaning of human variation ...

  16. The Human Journey

    The Human Journey offers a truly concise yet satisfyingly full history of the world from ancient times to the present. The book's scope, as the title implies, is the whole story of humanity, in planetary context. Its themes include not only the great questions of the humanities—nature versus nurture, the history and meaning of human variation, the sources of wealth and causes of revolution ...

  17. The Human Journey By Kevin Reilly

    The Human Journey Summary The Human Journey: A Concise Introduction to World History, 1450 to the Present by Kevin Reilly. The Human Journey offers a truly concise yet satisfyingly full history of the world from ancient times to the present. The book's scope, as the title implies, is the whole story of humanity, in planetary context.

  18. The Human Journey

    From The Human Journey Blog: Out on a Limb: The Danger of our Innate Shortsightedness. We evolved to pay less attention to the slow moving dangers that threaten our world. Luckily there are ways to overcome this handicap and be more in tune with the bigger picture. Read more. Travel our amazing journey out of Africa to modern society.

  19. The Human Journey: A Concise Introduction to World History, Vol. 1

    The Human Journey offers a truly concise yet satisfyingly full history of the world from ancient times to the present. The book's scope, as the title implies, is the whole story of humanity, in planetary context. Its themes include not only the great questions of the humanities—nature versus nurture, the history and meaning of human ...

  20. Shamanic Drum Journey September 12 2024

    Get tickets on Humanitix - Shamanic Drum Journey September 12 2024 hosted by Soul Weave Gatherings ~ Nic and Kim. Oxford Falls Peace Park, Dreadnought Rd, Oxford Falls NSW 2099, Australia. ... Order summary. Shamanic Drum Journey September 12 2024. Thu 12th Sep 2024, 7:00 pm - 9:00 pm AEST.

  21. Summary of Kahneman's "Thinking, Fast and Slow"

    Featured Book Summary of Kahneman's "Thinking, Fast and Slow" Daniel Kahneman is a Nobel Laureate in Economics who is a psychologist by training. He won the prize mostly for his work in decision making, specifically Prospect Theory. This book distills a lifetime of work on the engine of human thinking, highlighting our cognitive biases and … Continue reading Summary of Kahneman's ...

  22. The Human Journey, Volumes 1

    The Human Journey offers a truly concise yet satisfyingly full history of the world from ancient times to the present. The book's scope, as the title implies, is the whole story of humanity, in planetary context. Its themes include not only the great questions of the humanities—nature versus nurture, the history and meaning of human variation ...

  23. The Divine Comedy by Dante, Illustrated, Purgatory, Complete

    Dante Alighieri's Purgatory, illustrated by Gustave Doré and translated by Henry Cary, is a journey through the second realm of the afterlife, where souls are purged of their sins before entering heaven. This eBook provides a complete translation of Purgatory, with vivid descriptions and compelling insights into the human condition.