Mutiny or Murder: What Happened to Henry Hudson?

explorer whose voyage ended in mutiny

It has been 400 years since English explorer Henry Hudson mapped the northeast coast of North America, leaving a wake of rivers and towns named in his honor, yet what happened to the famed explorer remains a mystery.

Hudson was never heard from again after a mutiny by his crew during a later voyage through northern Canada. That he died in the area in 1611 is a certainty, and he may have even been killed in cold blood, according to new research.

The anger among Hudson's crew over his decision to continue exploring after the harsh winter could have easily fueled a murderous mutiny, suggests Peter Mancall, a professor of history at the University of Southern California. "The full story of Hudson's saga reveals one of the darker chapters of the European age of discovery," said Mancall, who explores the 1610 voyage in his new book "Fatal Journey: The Final Expedition of Henry Hudson" (Basic Books; 2009).

Hudson claims Manhattan

Before the fatal voyage that took his life, Henry Hudson found great success as a navigator the way many men did during the Age of Exploration – by accident.

Hired by the Dutch East India Company to find a new passage to spice-rich Asia by way of the Arctic Ocean, Hudson was ultimately forced by impassable ice to seek another route south. Sailing into what would eventually be named the Hudson River in 1609, he did not find the Northwest Passage he was looking for, but did manage to stake the first loose claim to the territory – including the island of Manhattan – on behalf of The Netherlands.

The value of the land he'd claimed for a foreign power wasn't lost on the rulers of his home country. Upon his return, England's royal council forbid Hudson from ever sailing under another flag, and he was sent back to the New World in 1610 aboard the English ship Discovery.

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Hudson's objective was, once again, to find a northern passage to the Orient, but he would never return from that trip. The Discovery docked back in London in 1611 without having reached Asia, without the captain aboard and with just eight crew, all of whom were now subject to death by hanging for the murder.

Set adrift Some facts about the 1610-1611 voyage of the Discovery are certain.

Discovery plied the Canadian bay that also took Hudson's name in the summer of 1610, the captain believing that he'd possibly found the elusive northern passage to the Pacific. The ship was forced to ground itself for the winter, however, with Hudson ordering a return to the route the next spring, despite his crew's wish to return to England. When the ship took to the water again for its return trip in June, 1611, Hudson was not aboard.

On trial for Hudson's murder later that year, the remaining crew admitted to cutting the captain and a group of individuals still loyal to him loose on a small lifeboat, according to court documents.

None of the men was convicted of the murder or even punished for the mutiny, and historians generally believe their claims, too. But some physical evidence points to a more violent end for the captain, Mancall believes.

Mancall highlighted evidence that was found and documented after the ship docked in London: blood stains, most damningly, along with letters from another sailor mentioning the growing personal rift between captain and crew. A number of Hudson's possessions were also missing.

Brought down by determination

Since Hudson's body was never found, however, it will never be known for sure whether the captain was murdered or given a more subtle death sentence, set adrift in the harsh environment of northern Canada.

It was Hudson's steely nature to press on and meet his objective that led to his demise, whatever that may have been, historians agree.

"Hudson was one of the most intrepid and important explorers of his age," said Mancall. "He was not a man who easily gave up."

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The Ages of Exploration

Ferdinand magellan, age of discovery.

Quick Facts:

He led the first circumnavigation of the world, and is considered the first European to cross the Pacific Ocean

Name : Ferdinand Magellan [fur-dn-and] [muh-jel-uhn]

Birth/Death : 1480-1521

Nationality : Portuguese

Birthplace : Porto or Sabrosa, Portugal

explorer whose voyage ended in mutiny

Portrait of Ferdinand Magellan

Half-length portrait of Ferdinand Magellan (circa 1580-1521), first European to circle the globe. The Mariners Museum 1949.0619.000001

Introduction Ferdinand Magellan is known for circumnavigating – sailing around – the world. From Spain he sailed around South America, discovering the Strait of Magellan, and across the Pacific. Though he was killed in the Philippines, his ship the Victoria continued westward to Spain, accomplishing the first circumnavigation of the globe. But in some cases, his journey was filled with more than he would bargain for. Magellan’s story is filled with war, storms, mutiny, and hostile native encounters.

Biography Early Life Ferdinand Magellan was born in 1480 in Portugal; the exact city is unknown. Many believe it was either Porto or Sabrosa. Ferdinand Magellan is the English version of his name. In Portuguese, his name is Fernão de Magalhães. He came from a noble family. His father was Rui de Magalhães and Alda de Mesquita. Young Magellan was a page in the royal court for the queen of Portugal. Here, he would learn helpful skills such as hunting, fighting, and he would have learned about the stars. 1 His father often traveled to a town called Oporto (also spelled Porto). The harbor here was crowded with shipping and seafaring travelers with tales of adventure. It is possible that Oporto is where Magellan found a love for the sea and exploration. 2 But Ferdinand Magellan was not always an explorer. He began his career as a soldier in the Portuguese navy. He left Portugal in 1505 and sailed to India under the command of Francisco de Almeida. They were sent by King Manuel I to break Muslim sea power in India and Africa. 3 Magellan left Lisbon on March 25, 1505. He would travel and fight in several battles over the next few years.

In 1506, Magellan traveled to the East Indies (modern day Indonesia) and joined expeditions to Spice Islands (also called the Molucca Islands). In February 1509, he took part in the naval Battle of Diu, which marked the decline of Ottoman (modern day Turkey) influence in the area. The Portuguese now had dominance over most of the Indian Ocean. He returned to Lisbon in 1512. A year later, he went to Morocco in Northern Africa where he fought in another battle. During the battle, Magellan received a serious wound that would cause him to walk with a limp for the rest of his life. 4 Also while in Morocco, Magellan was accused of stealing. He was proven innocent, but the incident ruined his reputation with the Portuguese king. Magellan wanted to command a voyage to the Spice Islands. He believed he could reach them by sailing west. When he returned to Portugal, he petitioned King Manuel I three times to let him go. The King refused each time. Ferdinand Magellan then went to King Charles I of Spain. The Spanish King agreed to sponsor what would become Magellan’s great voyage around the world.

Voyages Principal Voyage By the end of October 1517, Magellan was in Seville, becoming a Spanish citizen. King Charles I funded Magellan and he set sail September 20, 1519 with a fleet of five ships and roughly 200 men. The five ships were: the Trinidad , captained by Magellan; San Antonio , captained by Juan de Cartagena; Concepción , captained by Gaspar de Quesada; Victoria , captained by Luis de Mendoza; and the Santiago , captained by Juan Serrano. They stopped at the Canary Islands to pick up some supplies, and then continued into the Atlantic Ocean. Magellan received a letter that the Spanish officers planned to kill him after leaving the Canaries. Magellan remained on guard for his life throughout much of the trip. They sailed for several weeks, and by November 20, they crossed the equator into the southern hemisphere. 5 In December, they stopped at Guanabara Bay in southeastern Brazil to resupply once again.

Magellan’s fleet continued on down the coast of South America. He was searching for a passage that connected one ocean to the other. As their journey went on, life at sea became difficult. Food and water became rationed, and the crew was not happy. On April 1, 1520, while at Port St. Julian, the three captains Cartagena, Mendoza, and Quesada called their crews to mutiny. 6 The mutiny was crushed by Magellan. Mendoza had been killed during the mutiny. Quesada and Cartagena were found guilty of murder and treason. Quesada was beheaded for his crime, while Cartagena was left marooned – or stranded – on land when the fleet left. 7 The fleet traveled onward. While near Santa Cruz, the Santiago wrecked while on a scouting mission. They continued south and on October 21, 1520 he finally found the passage they were searching for. Shortly after entering the passage, the San Antonio deserted the mission. On November 8, 1520 the Trinidad , Concepción , and Victoria reached the “Sea of the South.” 8 Today we know it as the Pacific Ocean. This passage at the tip of South America that Ferdinand Magellan had found would later be renamed the Strait of Magellan.

Subsequent Voyages Ferdinand Magellan had problems along the way, but he had finally reached the Pacific Ocean. Once through the strait, Magellan continued northward up the coast of Chile. In March the reached the island we now know as Guam. Here, they found and ate fresh food for the first time in 99 days. 9 Having found a route through South America, Magellan was still determined to reach the Spice Islands. He and his fleet continued west. Along their course, they noticed a constant flow of wind. This air provided steady winds to their back which was very helpful to their sailing. Magellan and his crew had unknowingly discovered “trade winds.” The name would come from the important role they would later play in transoceanic trade. Their journey continued until they reached the Philippines in March of 1521. By this point, Magellan had endured a somewhat difficult yet successful journey. But his luck would not last much longer.

Later Years and Death Throughout the Philippine Islands, Magellan and his men regularly interacted with the natives. At Cebú, The native chief, his wife, and several of the natives were baptized and converted to Christianity. Because of this, Magellan thought he could convince other native tribes to convert. But not all interactions with the natives were friendly. Chief Datu Lapu Lapu of the Mactan Island rejected conversion. So Magellan took a group of about 60 men to attack Mactan. The Mactan’s had about 1500 men. On April 27, 1521, Ferdinand Magellan was killed during battle on the Philippine Islands. The Trinidad and Victoria soon made it to the Spice Islands. The Trinidad needed much repair. So the Victoria , captained by Juan Sebastian Elcano continued on.On December 21,1521, the Victoria sailed across the Indian Ocean to Spain. September 6, 1522, they arrived with only 18 men at Sanlúcar de Barrameda on the coast of Spain.

Legacy Although he died in the Philippines, we recognize Ferdinand Magellan as the first European to circumnavigate the globe. He fearlessly commanded a fleet of ships, one that completed the journey in his name and honor. Several discoveries were made along the way. The Strait of Magellan, off the southern coast of South America, became an important navigational route. His discovery of the trade winds ranks among his most useful and major findings. 10 The expedition gave Europeans a much better understanding of the extent of the Earth’s size. Much of what we know of Magellan’s journey came from Antonio Pigafetta. A crew member of the famed voyage, Pigafetta kept a first hand account of the voyage. He and his story survived the journey around the globe, and his account later was translated. Magellan had set out with a goal to discover a Western sea route to the Spice Islands. What he helped prove, however, is that the world is indeed round, and much bigger than Europeans previously imagined.

  • Mervyn D. Kaufman, Ferdinand Magellan (Mankato: Capstone Press, 2004), 6.
  • Frederick Albion Ober, Ferdinand Magellan (New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1907), 5 – 6.
  • Britannica Educational Publishing, The Britannica Guide to Explorers and Explorations That Changed the Modern World (New York: Britannica Educational Publishing, 2010), 77.
  • Michael Burgan, Magellan: Ferdinand Magellan and the First Trip Around the World (Mankato: Capstone Publishers, 2001), 11.
  • Nancy Smiler Levinson, Magellan and the First Voyage Around the World (New York: Clarion Books, 2001), 55.
  • Ober, Ferdinand Magellan , 143 – 148.
  • Ober, Ferdinand Magellan , 151 – 153.
  • Britannica Educational Publishing, The Britannica Guide , 81.
  • Laurence Bergreen, Magellan: Over the Edge of the World (New York: Roaring Brook Press, 2017), 89.

Bibliography

Bergreen, Laurence. Magellan: Over the Edge of the World . New York: Roaring Brook Press, 2017.

Britannica Educational Publishing. The Britannica Guide to Explorers and Explorations That Changed the Modern World . New York: Britannica Educational Publishing, 2010.

Burgan, Michael. Magellan: Ferdinand Magellan and the First Trip Around the World . Mankato: Capstone Publishers, 2001.

Kaufman, Mervyn D. Ferdinand Magellan . Mankato: Capstone Press, 2004.

Levinson, Nancy Smiler. Magellan and the First Voyage Around the World . New York: Clarion Books, 2001.

Ober, Frederick Albion. Ferdinand Magellan . New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1907.

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Henry Hudson

By: History.com Editors

Updated: June 6, 2023 | Original: November 9, 2009

Circa 1595, English navigator Henry Hudson (d. 1611) who while traveling in the ´Half Moon´ for the Dutch East India Company, discovered the Hudson River and reached Hudson Bay in 1610-11. He died after mutineers set him adrift, and he was lost at sea. (Photo by Stock Montage/Getty Images)

Henry Hudson made his first voyage west from England in 1607, when he was hired to find a shorter route to Asia from Europe through the Arctic Ocean. After twice being turned back by ice, Hudson embarked on a third voyage in 1609. This time, he chose a southern route, drawn by reports of a channel across the North American continent to the Pacific. After navigating the Atlantic coast, Hudson’s ships sailed up a great river (today’s Hudson River) but turned back when they determined it was not the channel they sought. On a fourth and final voyage in 1610-11, Hudson spent months in the vast Hudson Bay before he fell victim to a mutiny by his crew. Hudson’s discoveries laid the groundwork for Dutch colonization of the Hudson River Valley, as well as English land claims in Canada.

Birth and Early Life

Though little is known about Hudson’s early life, most historians agree that he was born around 1565 in England, and later lived in London . It’s known that he received a better education than many, because he could read, write, and do mathematics. He also studied navigation and earned widespread renown for his skills, as well as his knowledge of Arctic geography.

Hudson married a woman named Katherine, and together they had three sons: Oliver, John and Richard. John would later accompany his father on his expeditions.

In 1607, the Muscovy Company of London provided Hudson financial backing based on his claims that he could find an ice-free passage past the North Pole that would provide a shorter route to the rich markets and resources of Asia. Hudson sailed that spring with his son John and 10 companions. They traveled east along the edge of the polar ice pack until they reached the Svalbard archipelago, well north of the Arctic Circle, before hitting ice and being forced to turn back.

Did you know? Knowledge gained during Henry Hudson's four voyages significantly expanded on that from previous explorations made in the 16th century by Giovanni da Verrazano of Italy, John Davis of England and Willem Barents of Holland.

The following year, Hudson made a second Muscovy-funded voyage between Svalbard and the islands of Novaya Zemlya, to the east of the Barents Sea, but again found his way blocked by ice fields. Though English companies were reluctant to back him after two failed voyages, Hudson was able to gain a commission from the Dutch East India Company to lead a third expedition in 1609.

The Half Moon

While in Amsterdam gathering supplies, Hudson heard reports of two possible channels running across North America to the Pacific. One was located around latitude 62° N (based on English explorer Captain George Weymouth’s 1602 voyage); the second, around latitude 40° N, had been recently reported by Captain John Smith .

Hudson departed from Holland on the ship Halve Maen ( Half Moon ) in April 1609, but when adverse conditions again blocked his route northeast, he ignored his agreement with his employers to return directly and decided to sail to the New World in search of the so-called “northwest passage.”

After landing in Newfoundland, Canada, Hudson’s expedition traveled south along the Atlantic coast and put into the great river discovered by Florentine navigator Giovanni da Verrazano in 1524. They traveled up the river about 150 miles, to what is now Albany, before deciding that it would not lead all the way to the Pacific and turning back. From that time on, the river would be known as the Hudson River.

On the return voyage, Hudson docked at Dartmouth, England, where English authorities acted to prevent him and his other English crew members from making voyages on behalf of other nations. The ship’s log and records were sent to Holland, where news of Hudson’s discoveries spread quickly.

Hudson’s Final Voyage

The British East India Company and the Muscovy Company, along with private sponsors, jointly funded Hudson’s fourth voyage, on which he sought the possible Pacific-bound channel identified by Weymouth. Hudson sailed from London in April 1610 in the 55-ton ship Discovery , stopped briefly in Iceland, then continued west.

After traversing the coast again, he passed through the inlet Weymouth had described as a potential entry point to a northwest passage. (Now called Hudson Strait, it runs between Baffin Island and northern Quebec.) When the coastline suddenly opened up towards the south, Hudson believed he might have found the Pacific, but he soon realized he had sailed into a gigantic bay, now known as Hudson Bay.

Hudson continued sailing southward along the bay’s eastern coast until he reached its southernmost extremity at James Bay, between northern Ontario and Quebec. While enduring harsh winter conditions with no outlet to the Pacific in sight, some crew members grew restless and hostile, suspecting Hudson of hoarding rations to give to his favorites.

Last Days of Henry Hudson

In June 1611, as the expedition began heading back to England, sailors Henry Green and Robert Juet (who had been demoted as mate) led a mutiny. Seizing Hudson and his son, they cast them adrift on Hudson Bay with a few supplies in a small open lifeboat, along with seven other men who were suffering from scurvy.

Hudson, his 17-year-old son John, and his men were never heard from again. After further troubles on their return trip to England, by the time Discovery encountered a fleet of fishermen off the coast of Ireland in September 1611, the original crew of 23 was down to just eight survivors. They were arrested for mutiny, but never punished.

Henry Hudson. The Mariner’s Museum and Park . Henry Hudson. The Canadian Encyclopedia . Henry Hudson. PBS . Strangers In A New Land. American Heritage .

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400 years later, explorer’s death still a mystery

Image: Oil painting of Henry Hudson with his son and crew member

It has been 400 years since English explorer Henry Hudson mapped the northeast coast of North America, leaving a wake of rivers and towns named in his honor, yet what happened to the famed explorer remains a mystery.

Hudson was never heard from again after a mutiny by his crew during a later voyage through northern Canada. That he died in the area in 1611 is a certainty, and he may have even been killed in cold blood, according to new research.

The anger among Hudson's crew over his decision to continue exploring after the harsh winter could have easily fueled a murderous mutiny, suggests Peter Mancall, a professor of history at the University of Southern California. "The full story of Hudson's saga reveals one of the darker chapters of the European age of discovery," said Mancall, who explores the 1610 voyage in his new book "Fatal Journey: The Final Expedition of Henry Hudson" (Basic Books; 2009).

Hudson claims Manhattan Before the fatal voyage that took his life, Henry Hudson found great success as a navigator the way many men did during the Age of Exploration — by accident.

Hired by the Dutch East India Company to find a new passage to spice-rich Asia by way of the Arctic Ocean, Hudson was ultimately forced by impassable ice to seek another route south. Sailing into what would eventually be named the Hudson River in 1609, he did not find the Northwest Passage he was looking for, but did manage to stake the first loose claim to the territory — including the island of Manhattan — on behalf of The Netherlands.

The value of the land he'd claimed for a foreign power wasn't lost on the rulers of his home country. Upon his return, England's royal council forbid Hudson from ever sailing under another flag, and he was sent back to the New World in 1610 aboard the English ship Discovery .

Hudson's objective was, once again, to find a northern passage to Asia, but he would never return from that trip. The Discovery docked back in London in 1611 without having reached Asia, without the captain aboard and with just eight crew, all of whom were now subject to death by hanging for the murder.

Set adrift Some facts about the 1610-1611 voyage of the Discovery are certain.

Discovery plied the Canadian bay that also took Hudson's name in the summer of 1610, the captain believing that he'd possibly found the elusive northern passage to the Pacific. The ship was forced to ground itself for the winter, however, with Hudson ordering a return to the route the next spring, despite his crew's wish to return to England. When the ship took to the water again for its return trip in June 1611, Hudson was not aboard.

On trial for Hudson's murder later that year, the remaining crew admitted to cutting the captain and a group of individuals still loyal to him loose on a small lifeboat, according to court documents.

None of the men was convicted of the murder or even punished for the mutiny, and historians  generally believe their claims, too. But some physical evidence points to a more violent end for the captain, Mancall believes.

Mancall highlighted evidence that was found and documented after the ship docked in London: blood stains, most damningly, along with letters from another sailor mentioning the growing personal rift between captain and crew. A number of Hudson's possessions were also missing.

Since Hudson's body was never found, however, it will never be known for sure whether the captain was murdered or given a more subtle death sentence, set adrift in the harsh environment of northern Canada.

It was Hudson's steely nature to press on and meet his objective that led to his demise, whatever that may have been, historians agree.

"Hudson was one of the most intrepid and important explorers of his age," said Mancall. "He was not a man who easily gave up."

explorer whose voyage ended in mutiny

  • HISTORY & CULTURE

The real story behind the infamous mutiny on the H.M.S. Bounty

The British naval crew’s rebellion is legendary. But here’s what happened afterward—from marooned mutineers to court-martials.

Idyllic islands. An epic journey. A rebellious crew. When the H.M.S. Bounty set sail from England in November 1787, its captain and crew could never have anticipated that their peaceful voyage would end with court-martials, marooned mutineers, and generations of settlers on a far-flung island in the South Pacific.  

Now famous for its mutiny, the Bounty has become a big-screen legend, spawning five feature films in the 20th century alone. But the ship’s voyage, and it's unforeseen consequences, were very real.

The Bounty sets sail to Tahiti

The Bounty was a vessel of Britain’s Royal Navy, but its mission was peaceful. Veteran captain William Bligh had been tasked with a voyage to gather breadfruit , a tropical fruit related to the fig that the British crown thought would make cheap, nutritious rations for the enslaved workers at sugar plantations in the British West Indies.

Carrying a crew of 46, including two botanists, the ship had no commissioned officers except for Bligh and sailed alone, lacking the protection of other British vessels. But Bligh anticipated a peaceful journey to Tahiti, which had been visited by Captain James Cook in 1769 and was viewed by British mariners as a breadfruit-laden paradise.

In October 1788, after a storm-tossed journey spanning 10 months and 27,000 miles, the Bounty   finally reached Tahiti. It was as idyllic as the Bounty ’s crew had been told it would be, and they took full advantage of it. They were welcomed by the Tahitians, who traded with them and even took them into their homes. They also formed attachments to the island’s women , who sold sexual favors in exchange for items like nails.

By day, the crew gathered breadfruit and tended the plants; by night, they reveled. Over the course of five months on the island, more than 40 percent of the men were treated for sexually transmitted diseases that had been imported to Tahiti years before by English and French explorers.

explorer whose voyage ended in mutiny

Mutiny breaks out

When the Bounty   set sail again on April 1, 1789, the seeds of mutiny had already been planted. The men had experienced Tahiti as a paradise, and Bligh, who was widely known as a strict disciplinarian, was frustrated by his crew’s lack of discipline. The captain was “fault-finding, insulting, petty and condescending” on the journey, writes Bounty   expert and author Sven Wahlroos, and “seems to have relished humiliating all his officers.” He singled out his master’s mate Fletcher Christian, scapegoating and punishing him in front of the crew. On April 27, he accused Christian of stealing from the Bounty ’s stash of coconuts and punished the entire crew for the theft.

Fuel their curiosity with your gift

Though historians still argue about the true cause of the mutiny, they agree that for Christian, his captain’s accusation was the final straw. On April 28, a group of mutineers led by Christian armed themselves with the Bounty ’s muskets and burst into Bligh’s cabin, taking him prisoner. “I have been in hell for weeks past with you,” Christian reportedly told Bligh.

Chaos ensued and the ship’s crew split into two factions, one loyal to Bligh, the other determined to desert. The 23 mutineers put the captain and 18 other men on a boat, gave them some rations and a sextant to help them navigate, and set the boat adrift. The Bounty   was under rebel command.

explorer whose voyage ended in mutiny

Christian and his crew, which included a few captives who remained loyal to Bligh, wanted to build a permanent settlement and set their sights on the Tongan island of Tubuai, about 400 miles south of Tahiti. There they met and killed a group of hostile native islanders, then went back to Tahiti to seek laborers and supplies. Certain that the Tahitian chiefs, who had good relations with Britain, would refuse to help them if they knew what had happened, the mutineers covered up the mutiny, lied about their mission, and returned to Tubuai with 30 Tahitians. But they gave up the fight for Tubuai after continued hostilities with the islanders and growing divisions among the crew made a takeover unsustainable.

The mutineers returned to Tahiti, only to find that their lie had been discovered. Desperate and cornered by a new plot to mutiny against him, Christian lured a group of Tahitians onto the Bounty for a party, then took them captive and set sail again. Sixteen British sailors were left behind in Tahiti.

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Meanwhile, Bligh and his loyalists were on a wild journey of their own. At first, they headed for a different Tongan island, but abandoned it after hostile encounters with its native residents, who stoned the ship’s quartermaster to death. With dwindling rations, the group set out for a Dutch settlement in Timor, some 3,500 nautical miles away. After 47 days they arrived and reported the mutiny to the Crown.

Several died on the way home to England, but Bligh survived. “I have lost the Bounty ,” he wrote to his wife before his journey home. “My conduct has been free of blame, & I showed everyone, that tied as I was, I defied every Villain to hurt me.”

The mutiny’s aftermath

At home, Bligh was court-martialed and acquitted of responsibility for the loss of the ship. H.M.S. Pandora   then set sail from England on a mission to capture the mutineers. When the crew arrived in Tahiti in March 1791, they captured the 14 surviving mutineers whom Christian had abandoned. But the Pandora   ran into a disaster of its own when it foundered on the Great Barrier Reef, and four of the shackled captives drowned.

explorer whose voyage ended in mutiny

In September 1792, the 10 men who had been brought back to England faced court-martial . Under English law, any man who remained on the ship was guilty of mutiny regardless of whether he had actively participated. Four were acquitted, and six sentenced to death by hanging. Three of those six were ultimately pardoned, but the other three mutineers—Thomas Burkett, John Millward, and Thomas Ellison—were hanged on October 29, 1794.

By this time, the remaining mutineers and their Tahitian captives had found a safe haven on Pitcairn Island, a far-flung island in the southern Pacific. The verdant, uninhabited island seemed like a potential paradise, and the mutineers soon burned the Bounty and set up a permanent colony there.

But the tensions that had marred their voyage   persisted on the island. The Tahitians the mutineers had taken captive resented the English men’s abuse of the women, whom they treated as sexual possessions. One of the Tahitian women, Tevarua , is thought to have killed herself in response to her ongoing mistreatment. In September 1793, the Tahitian men killed four of the eight mutineers, including Christian. Within the next decade, all but one of the remaining mutineers, John Adams, died.

In the years that followed, the mutineers’ descendants set down roots on Pitcairn Island, though they abandoned and returned to the island multiple times in search of supplies and more productive land. Those descendants still live on the tiny island, which is a British Overseas Territory with a population of around 50. In 1957, National Geographic Explorer Luis Marden found what remained of the Bounty   off the island’s east coast.

Today, the story of the Bounty   is remembered for its infamous place in Britain’s colonial history as much as its adventure and drama. Between disease, the arrival of Christian missionaries, and the sexual exploitation of women, historian Diana Preston told National Geographic   in 2017, European explorers “effectively destroyed all the things that people had found exotic and attractive about Tahitian culture.”

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HISTORIC ARTICLE

Apr 28, 1789 ce: mutiny on the bounty.

On April 28, 1789, 18 crewmembers of the British trade ship Bounty mutinied against their captain while sailing in the remote South Pacific.

Anthropology, Geography, Physical Geography, Social Studies, World History

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On April 28, 1789, crewmembers of the British trade ship Bounty mutinied against their captain while sailing in the remote South Pacific. The mutiny has been chronicled in books, theatrical productions, and movies. The Bounty had left England almost two years earlier. The ship was on a voyage to collect breadfruit saplings from the tropical island of Tahiti, in the South Pacific. The saplings would then be delivered to British plantations in the West Indies, where they would be a cheap source of food for slaves. Collecting the saplings in Tahiti took longer than expected. During the five months it took the breadfruit cuttings to grow into sturdy saplings , the Bounty ’s crew became part of the local community . They enjoyed the easygoing Tahitian culture , which was a dramatic contrast to the strict—and sometimes violent—command of the Bounty ’s captain, William Bligh. About a month into the Bounty ’s voyage to the West Indies, a group led by Fletcher Christian abducted Bligh from his quarters. Although most of the crew remained loyal to Bligh, they were overpowered by the armed mutineers. Bligh and 18 sailors were set adrift in a rowboat, without navigational aids such as charts or compasses . Bligh then proceeded to complete a spectacular feat of navigation . Using only his watch and a quadrant , he successfully navigated 6,600 kilometers (3,500 nautical miles) across the Pacific and Indian Oceans to the island of Timor, now part of Indonesia. The mutineers endured different fates. Some returned to Tahiti, where they were arrested. Some died on the way back to England to stand trial, some were executed there, and others were pardoned . Christian, the leader of the mutiny , fled British authority and established a struggling community on the isolated island of Pitcairn. Today, most of the few dozen residents of Pitcairn Island trace their ancestry to Christian and other Bounty mutineers.

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Last Updated

October 19, 2023

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Crossword Clues

The CroswodSolver.com system found 25 answers for explorer whose last voyage ended in mutiny crossword clue. Our system collect crossword clues from most populer crossword, cryptic puzzle, quick/small crossword that found in Daily Mail, Daily Telegraph, Daily Express, Daily Mirror, Herald-Sun, The Courier-Mail, Dominion Post and many others popular newspaper. Enter the answer length or the answer pattern to get better results.

Explorer Whose Last Voyage Ended In Mutiny Crossword Clue and Answers List

Whose voyage ended in mutiny

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The Bounty.

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imp

How long was the voyage on the HMS Beagle?

Of the almost five year voyage, aboard the HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin spent 18 months aboard the ship sailing. The remaining 3 years and 3 months were spent on land observing the local flora and fauna.

What was the purpose of the voyage of the HMS Challenger?

The purpose of the voyage of the Challenger was to discover different marine species.

Which of these statements was proven true by the voyage?

Without know what statements you are referring to we cannot answer.

What was the date that the titanic was to make her maiden voyage?

i LOVE THAT FILM ALL PEOPLE BUFF

What is the answer to this describes a organism whose tissues are completely replaced by minerals?

An organism whose tissues are completely replaced by minerals is a fossil.

Who was the explorer whose voyage ended ended in mutiny?

Henry Hudson

Who was the explorer whose last voyage ended in mutiny?

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Tampa Bay Mutiny ended in 2002.

When did Henry Hudson's first voyage end?

1611 that's when Henry Hudson's voyage ended all of them idkk when his 1st voyage ended but all of them together ended at 1611 yeahhh

When did Submarine Voyage end?

Submarine Voyage ended in 1998.

In whose viceroyalty the white mutiny took place?

Canning , in 1859

How did Christopher Columbus voyage life ended?

Well he travel his last voyage and died after his last voyage

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COMMENTS

  1. Mutiny or Murder: What Happened to Henry Hudson?

    published 7 July 2009. An oil painting from 1881 by John Maler Collier depicts Henry Hudson, his son and a crew member after he was presumably set adrift in a small boat after a mutiny on his last ...

  2. Henry Hudson set adrift by mutineers

    Many of the crew held Hudson responsible for their misfortune, and on June 22, 1611, with the coming of summer, they mutinied against him. The Discovery later returned to England, and its crew was ...

  3. Henry Hudson

    Henry Hudson (c. 1565 - disappeared 23 June 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the Northeastern United States.. In 1607 and 1608, Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a rumoured Northeast Passage to Cathay via a route above the Arctic Circle.

  4. an explorer whose last voyage ended in mutiny

    The explorer whose last voyage ended in mutiny is likely Ferdinand Magellan, as his expedition witnessed a significant mutiny halfway through the voyage. Despite the mutiny and his own death, the voyage continued and it became the first to circumnavigate the earth. Explanation: The phrase 'an explorer whose last voyage ended in mutiny' is ...

  5. Ferdinand Magellan

    Half-length portrait of Ferdinand Magellan (circa 1580-1521), first European to circle the globe. The Mariners Museum 1949.0619.000001. Introduction. Ferdinand Magellan is known for circumnavigating - sailing around - the world. From Spain he sailed around South America, discovering the Strait of Magellan, and across the Pacific.

  6. Fletcher Christian

    Fletcher Christian (25 September 1764 - 20 September 1793) was a British sailor who led the mutiny on the Bounty in 1789, during which he seized command of the Royal Navy vessel HMS Bounty from Lieutenant William Bligh.. In 1787, Christian was appointed master's mate on Bounty, tasked with transporting breadfruit plants from Tahiti to the West Indies. ...

  7. Bounty mutiny survivors reach Timor

    By remarkable seamanship, however, Bligh and his men reached Timor in the East Indies on June 14, 1789, after a voyage of about 3,600 miles. Bligh returned to England and soon sailed again to ...

  8. Henry Hudson: Definition & Discoveries

    Updated: June 6, 2023 | Original: November 9, 2009. Henry Hudson made his first voyage west from England in 1607, when he was hired to find a shorter route to Asia from Europe through the Arctic ...

  9. 400 years later, explorer's death still a mystery

    July 7, 2009, 3:42 PM PDT / Source: LiveScience. By By Heather Whipps. It has been 400 years since English explorer Henry Hudson mapped the northeast coast of North America, leaving a wake of ...

  10. The real story behind the infamous mutiny on the H.M.S. Bounty

    Now famous for its mutiny, the Bounty has become a big-screen legend, spawning five feature films in the 20th century alone. But the ship's voyage, and it's unforeseen consequences, were very real.

  11. Mutiny on the Bounty

    On April 28, 1789, crewmembers of the British trade ship Bounty mutinied against their captain while sailing in the remote South Pacific. The mutiny has been chronicled in books, theatrical productions, and movies. The Bounty had left England almost two years earlier. The ship was on a voyage to collect breadfruit saplings from the tropical island of Tahiti, in the South Pacific.

  12. What is a explorer whose last voyage ended in mutiny call ...

    Explorer whose voyage up the st lawrence river gave france a claim to much of eastern canada? Jacques Cartier is the explorer known for his voyages up the St. Lawrence River in the 16th century.

  13. Mutiny on the Bounty

    Fletcher Christian and the mutineers set Lieutenant William Bligh and 18 others adrift, depicted in a 1790 aquatint by Robert Dodd. The mutiny on the Royal Navy vessel HMS Bounty occurred in the South Pacific Ocean on 28 April 1789. Disaffected crewmen, led by acting-Lieutenant Fletcher Christian, seized control of the ship from their captain, Lieutenant William Bligh, and set him and eighteen ...

  14. The Bounty Mutiny Remembered

    In the 20th century, the Bounty Trilogy —Mutiny on the Bounty, Men Against the Sea, and Pitcairn's Island, written by Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall in the 1930s—has captivated millions of readers. In 1791, meanwhile, sailors from HMS Pandora landed on Tahiti and apprehended those crewmen who had remained on the island—mutineers ...

  15. What was the mutiny on the Bounty? Here's all you need to know

    Published: April 28, 2020 at 1:31 PM. Just before the sun rose on 28 April 1789, Commanding Lieutenant William Bligh of the HMAV Bounty was woken at cutlass point. The weapon was held by crewmember Fletcher Christian. Bligh was forcibly relieved of his command by a mob of mutineers, and bundled rudely onto a seven-metre-long boat.

  16. Explorer Whose Last Voyage Ended In Mutiny Crossword Clue and Solver

    The CroswodSolver.com system found 25 answers for explorer whose last voyage ended in mutiny crossword clue. Our system collect crossword clues from most populer crossword, cryptic puzzle, quick/small crossword that found in Daily Mail, Daily Telegraph, Daily Express, Daily Mirror, Herald-Sun, The Courier-Mail, Dominion Post and many others popular newspaper.

  17. USA studies weekly Flashcards

    explorer whose last voyage ended in mutiny. hudson. people conquered by cortes. aztec. state where you find the oldest permanently settled city in the usa. Florida. present day name of country where cabot claimed land. Canada. someone who travels to gain geographical or scientific information.

  18. What explorer whose last voyage ended in mutiny

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  19. explorer whose last voyage ended in mutiny

    Henry Hudson was the person or explorer whose last voyage ended in mutiny. Sir Henry Hudson was a renowned explorer and navigator during the early 17th century. He was born in England of the United Kingdom. He died in the year 1611. e was the person who discovered the Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait. I hope the answer helps you.

  20. Who was an explorer whose voyage ended in mutiny?

    Who was an explorer whose voyage ended in mutiny? Updated: 12/18/2022. Wiki User. ∙ 7y ago. Add an answer. Want this question answered? Be notified when an answer is posted. 📣 Request Answer.

  21. Why there was mutiny of Henry Hudson's fourth voyage?

    Who was the explorer whose voyage ended ended in mutiny? Henry Hudson. Which explorer last voyage ended in mutiny? Henry Hudson. What was Henry Hudsons sponsor country?

  22. Whose voyage ended in mutiny?

    Whose voyage ended in mutiny. Updated: 4/28/2022. Wiki User. ∙ 10y ago. Study now. See answer (1) Best Answer. Copy. The Bounty. Wiki User. ∙ 10y ago. This answer is: