Community capacity building and indigenous tourism in Iran

Profile image of Zahed Ghaderi

2024, Community capacity building and indigenous tourism in Iran

The improvement of community capacity is an essential component in optimizing and maintaining the advantages derived from tourism among marginalized communities. Nevertheless, this specific aspect has garnered minimal scholarly and practical scrutiny. The primary objective of this research is to investigate the issue of community capacity building in the context of tourism development within a marginalized nomadic community in Iran. Using a qualitative research methodology, the investigation included semi-structured interviews with a sample of 20 participants, comprising individuals from the local population as well as other tourism stakeholders. The collected data underwent thematic analysis and the results demonstrate the significance of various factors, including governance and policy support, social capital, community cohesion and integration, local leadership, access to resources, community participation, and socio-cultural sensitivity, in strengthening community capacity building. On the other hand, obstacles to capacity building were discovered, including issues such as distance from power centers, religious biases, and the nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyles.

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Building capacities for transformative climate action: lessons from five fields of practice

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  • Published: 16 May 2024
  • Volume 177 , article number  83 , ( 2024 )

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capacity building in tourism development

  • Snigdha Nautiyal   ORCID: 1  

Capacity building approaches have a deep history of mobilizing agency and enabling change across development, governance, and environmental contexts. It has also been recognized as a central means of implementation for supporting climate action in the Paris Agreement. Despite this, capacity building remains ambiguous, fragmented, and prone to cooption by vested interests, all of which can limit its effectiveness for transformative climate action. Given that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) demonstrates the need for transformative climate action to reduce emissions and limit warming to 1.5°C, the experiences and practical insights from capacity building implementation can be leveraged to concretize the more theoretical literature on transformation. The purpose of this study is thus to synthesize the best practices and lessons learned from scholarship on capacity building implementation for enabling transformations in the context of climate change. This scholarship is synthesized from five fields that are known for their practitioner involvement and implementation focus, and where capacity building has been in wide use for several decades: international development, public health, community development, sustainability, and climate change. Four implications emerge as essential from the synthesis: the importance of enabling agency while navigating power dynamics between capacity building stakeholders; making space for local cultures and knowledge across every stage of capacity building; incorporating mechanisms for learning, collaboration and systems thinking; and going beyond technical, managerial, and technological framings to also build capacities for envisioning, creating, mobilizing, learning and inculcating desirable attitudes, behaviors and values.

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May 14, 2024.

capacity building in tourism development

The COP29 Azerbaijan in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) developed a two-day training workshop to foster a conducive environment for building confidence and to encourage the timely submission of Biennial Transparency Reports (BTRs). 

At COP21 in 2015, Parties adopted the Paris Agreement and through it established an Enhanced Transparency Framework for action and support (ETF) designed to build trust and confidence that all countries are contributing to the global effort. 

For many developing country Parties, implementing the ETF requires a change of approach in how they respond to their international reporting obligations. What was often a project-based or ad-hoc preparation of National Communications (NCs) and Biennial Update Reports (BURs) will now require a holistic and sustained approach to meet the requirements defined for the submission of Biennial Transparency Reports (BTR), representing the first progress report on the implementation of the Paris Agreement. 

With a view to contributing to on-going efforts of developing country Parties to prepare and finalize their BTR and achieve universal participation in the ETF, the incoming COP29 Presidency, with the support of the UNFCCC Secretariat and in collaboration with other UN agencies and partners, organized a training workshop from 13 to 14 May 2024 in Baku in hybrid format. 

The workshop is one of the first major activities under the banner of the #Together4Transparency, which unites several groups of stakeholders committed to joining forces in preparation for ETF, in particular the submission of BTRs this year, recognizing that all actors can play a role in ensuring the success of the Paris Agreement.

The training workshop organized by the COP29 Presidency, UNDP, and UNFCCC with participation of local and international experts seeks to contribute to capacity building by familiarizing participants with relevant tools and techniques for preparation of BTRs. 

Media contact 

Jeyhun Alakbarov, UNDP Azerbaijan, +994 77 201 04 40,  [email protected]  

capacity building in tourism development

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Supporting climate transition in Latin America and the Caribbean

  • 15 May 2024

A previous EIB study showed that Latin America and Caribbean countries are paying a disproportionate price for the climate transition, with some of the largest exposures to climate risks, in particular physical risks.

In another study , we saw that commercial banks were mostly exposed to climate risks,  particularly physical ones, through the structure of their loan portfolio. This happens mainly through lending to corporates operating in vulnerable economic sectors, such as agriculture, mining and tourism.

In an upcoming recent report, we will also show that public development banks are generally fulfilling their role as shock absorbers that reduce physical climate risks. They are playing this role by lending even more money to climate-challenged sectors.

Climate transition as an opportunity

Because public development banks are so important in the region, we dove deeper into their work when it comes to climate action, the steps they have taken so far, and what’s holding them back from offering more green finance.  

Some other key finding from our survey of public banks in 14 Latin America and Caribbean countries:

  • Climate-related weather events have damaged the physical assets of 42% of public development banks and deteriorated the asset quality of the portfolio of another 61% in 2023.
  • 92% of the banks see the climate transition as an opportunity as opposed to a risk
  • 77% are following the targets set in the Paris agreement
  • only 50% see themselves as leaders or promoters of climate transition.
  • 42% are followers of industry practices mostly to remain competitive
  • 8% are still sceptical about the needs of a green transition

Around 79% of public development banks are already offering green products, while 17% are planning to do so soon. While public development banks seem to be rather advanced in more established best-baking practices for green banks, they are behind on more emerging trends – 52% hire climate technicians (e.g., engineers), 54% have a dedicated climate risk team and 50% include climate as “KPI”.

Main obstacles are client-related

When asked about the main constraints to green lending, public development banks first identify client-related factors.

Around 58% of banks say that climate strategy having a low priority is one of their top-three barriers to lending.

The public development banks also surveyed the clients’ lack of technical capacities or knowledge of available products and how to apply.

Only after these factors, public development banks mention their own shortcomings, such as their own risk management, monitoring & impact measurement practices.

What follows is the lack of access to long term capital – potentially due to a legacy of abundant liquidity or due to an increasing push by multilateral institutions to finance the green transition.

Finally, comes the misalignment of climate strategy and the public development banks’/clients’ commercial goals and the risks associated with climate lending. 

Building technical capacity

The message from our survey is clear: the main action point for large multilateral development banks and international financial institutions, like the EIB or ALIDE, to support climate financing seems to be mainly through building technical capacity, for example through technical assistance programs.

A good example of such programs is the EIB’s Greening of the financial sector technical assistance that covers so far more than 10 countries in Africa, Central Asia and Europe.

In the next steps of our study, we intend to complement the picture of climate by public development banks, adding elements such as, how have climate related flows to Latin America and Caribbean evolved by type of issuer and sector, and how public development banks climate financing compares with each country fiscal capacity.

We will also compare this survey’s results with other EIB surveys in different regions and with other players such as commercial banks and corporates.

The report comes out in mid-October.

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capacity building in tourism development

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capacity building in tourism development

President Xi Jinping has called for efforts to promote high-quality development of the tourism sector to accelerate the building of China into a country strong in tourism and bolster economic growth.

Xi, who is also general secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and chairman of the Central Military Commission, made the remarks in an instruction on work related to the tourism sector.

He pointed out that significant progress has been made in China's tourism development, saying that the nation's tourism industry has entered the fast lane, becoming the world's largest domestic tourism market, the country with the largest number of outbound tourists, and a major destination for international tourists.

The country's tourism sector has evolved from being small and weak to becoming an emerging strategic pillar industry, he said.

Xi said that in the new era and on the new journey, tourism development faces new opportunities and challenges in China.

He underlined the need to improve modern tourism systems and accelerate the building of China into a country strong in tourism.

Li Shulei, head of the Publicity Department of the CPC Central Committee, read out Xi's instruction at the National Tourism Development Conference, which was held in Beijing on Friday.

Addressing the conference, Li emphasized the need to deeply study and implement Xi's instructions and statements on tourism development and promote the integrated development of tourism and culture.

Efforts should be made to focus on systematic and scientific planning, strengthen cultural heritage protection and ecological conservation, improve market supply and tourism services, and deepen international tourism exchanges and cooperation in order to create new prospects for the country's tourism development, he said.

The consumption of services related to culture and tourism has become a pivotal pillar for stabilizing the Chinese economy.

The Ministry of Culture and Tourism issued a plan in November to boost domestic tourism, with a focus on offering a more diversified array of tourism products.

The China Tourism Academy estimated that domestic tourism will see remarkable growth both in visitor numbers and revenue in 2024.

According to a report released by the academy in January, China will see domestic visits reaching over 6 billion and tourism-related revenue exceeding 6 trillion yuan ($828 billion) in 2024. The confident prediction is based on the good recovery of supply chains of tourism services and the tourism economy in 2023.

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capacity building in tourism development


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    This chapter examines community capacity building as a precondition for any activity including tourism development, and only if tourism development is chosen as an option for community development. Community capacity building is about collective knowledge and ability within the community itself; and this knowledge and ability is used to define ...

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    The method of delivery chosen for capacity building activities should highly depend on the context as well as the factors already highlighted. Figure 1 illustrates the most common types of capacity building activities used to facilitate sustainable tourism. Study / Figure 2 provides tips for designing capacity building activities and resources.

  4. Community Capacity Building for Tourism Development

    Tourism development and building the capacity for local communities need to progress hand in hand. Community capacity building programs help underdeveloped communities to improve their ability to participate in the tourism decision-making processes. They encourage community involvement, and provide the tools that enable them to do so.

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    In tourism development, community capacity building involves communities' ability to participate in tourism activities (Aref & Redzuan, 2009). For individual community members it suggests the ...

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  7. Community capacity building: An emerging challenge for tourism development

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    Community capacity building: an emerging challenge for tourism development. [Extract] Tourism has become one of the world's most important sources of employment. It stimulates enormous investment in infrastructure, most of which also helps to improve the living conditions of local people. It provides governments with substantial tax revenues.

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    Tourism development and capacity building, within the communities where tourism is seen as a community opportunity, are closely linked and need to evolve and prosper simultaneously. It is important the fact that CCB programs help communities to increase their capability to contribute in the tourism decision-making processes, rather than being a ...

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    Tourism development and building the capacity for local communities need to progress hand in hand. Community capacity building programs help underdeveloped communities to improve their ability to participate in the tourism decision-making processes. They encourage community involvement, and provide the tools that enable them to do so.

  11. On the post-pandemic travel boom: How capacity building and smart

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  12. Building community capacity for tourism development

    Community capacity assessment in the tourism sector. Sharareh Khosravi B. Mohamed. Sociology, Business. 2013. Community capacity for tourism development is community readiness or the capacity of local people to participate in tourism activities. It is a level of requisite abilities to attain the community…. Expand.

  13. PDF Community Capacity Building: A Review of its Implication in Tourism

    framework for tourism developers and researchers for tourism development in local communities with respect to building community capacity. "[Journal of American Science 2010; 6(1):172-180]. (ISSN: 1545-1003)" Keywords: community capacity building, tourism development, community . 1. Introduction . Community capacity building (CCB) is a

  14. Capacity building for tourism development in a nested social-ecological

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  15. Capacity building for tourism development in a nested social-ecological

    Hence, capacity building that satisfies the different needs of these communities is essential (Wu, 2013, Wu and Tsai, 2014). This study investigates the perceptions of different community actors within the focal SES and assesses their capacity for tourism development in the South Penghu islands, where a marine national park has been proposed.

  16. Training in Sustainable Tourism: Supporting Capacity Building and

    Capacity building is a critical part of ensuring a sustainable future for the travel and tourism industry and its role in supporting the global sustainable development goals. ... Opportunities", this edition examines how tourism destinations and businesses can further develop HCD (human capital development) in sustainable tourism, and why ...

  17. Building Community Capacity for Tourism Development

    Building Community Capacity for Tourism Development. G. Moscardo. CABI, 2008 - Business & Economics - 196 pages. A lack of entrepreneurial capacity, limited understanding of tourism markets and a lack of community understanding of tourism and its impacts have been identified as barriers to effective tourism development in peripheral regions.

  18. Community capacity building and indigenous tourism in Iran

    Community capacity building for tourism development While CCB has been widely studied in various development fields, especially health, education, and agriculture (Aref et al., 2010), it has drawn scholarly attention in tourism with delay and has been increasingly studied recently (Ghaderi et al., 2018). ...

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    Urban Tourism. Destination Management. Innovation, Education & Investments. Innovation Projects. Investments Strategy. Tourism Startup Competitions. UN Tourism Challenges. Ethics, Culture & Social Responsibility. Global Code of Ethics for Tourism.

  20. A Comparative Study of the Tourism Carrying Capacity of the ...

    The objective of this study is to conduct a comparative analysis of variations in the tourist carrying capacity indicators within the tourism industry in the state of Baja California, building upon Bernal's work . This comparison spans two stages: an initial assessment and a subsequent evaluation after the COVID-19 impact in 2022.

  21. Building capacities for transformative climate action ...

    Capacity building approaches have a deep history of mobilizing agency and enabling change across development, governance, and environmental contexts. It has also been recognized as a central means of implementation for supporting climate action in the Paris Agreement. Despite this, capacity building remains ambiguous, fragmented, and prone to cooption by vested interests, all of which can ...

  22. COP29 and UNDP Azerbaijan developed a training workshop on building

    The COP29 Azerbaijan in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) developed a two-day training workshop to foster a conducive environment for building confidence and to encourage the timely submission of Biennial Transparency Reports (BTRs).

  23. (PDF) The Role of Local Community in Enhancing ...

    Traditionally, tourism development has often been top-down, with decisions and resources controlled by external entities such as government agencies or private corporations. ... Capacity Building ...

  24. Nineteen Rural Communities Selected for Third Round of Capacity

    Nineteen rural communities from across the state have been selected to participate in the Commerce Department's program to increase their capacity to plan, implement, and manage economic development programs and opportunities. The Rural Community Capacity (RC2) program, an initiative from the Commerce Department, also involves Appalachian State University's Walker College of Business and ...

  25. Barriers to community capacity building for tourism development in

    This paper illustrates barriers to community capacity building (CCB) in tourism development, based on a questionnaire survey of 175 community leaders carried out in the city of Shiraz in Iran. It builds on the work of other researchers who found that in developing countries, a lack of CCB is an influential barrier to tourism development. The study found that the main barriers to CCB are to be ...

  26. How LAC public development banks support the climate transition

    Climate-related weather events have damaged the physical assets of 42% of public development banks and deteriorated the asset quality of the portfolio of another 61% in 2023. only 50% see themselves as leaders or promoters of climate transition. Around 79% of public development banks are already offering green products, while 17% are planning ...

  27. Xi: Build stronger tourism sector

    President Xi Jinping has called for efforts to promote high-quality development of the tourism sector to accelerate the building of China into a country strong in tourism and bolster economic growth.