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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. To analyse the incidence of diseases and injuries suffered by athletes participating in the 27th Winter Sports Universiade held in Granada, Spain. The daily occurrence of injuries and diseases was registered at the point of first aid Borreguiles, metres above sea level masl and in the clinic of Pradollano maslboth in Sierra Nevada, as well as in medical services provided by the organising committee of Granada Universiade and located in sport pavilions in which indoor competitions are held.
A total of athletes men, Nine diseases and 68 injuries were recorded. In total, the rate of injury was 6. The percentage of injury was highest in alpine skiing In relation to the time of exposure, freestyle skiing showed the shortest time of exposure 0.
Short track speed skating showed Speed dating granada 2015 longest exposure 9. The most common anatomical areas of injury were the head, shoulder and knee Only nine diseases were suffered four women and five men of which six were infections, one was a friction burn, one was a lipothymy and one a cluster headache due to height.
In general, 6. The incidence of injuries and diseases varied among sport specialities. The incidence of injuries in Winter Universiade Granada is lower with respect to other similar winter international events. An injury index II between the total practical exposure time and the of injuries by modality has been determined.
The more affected anatomical areas were the head, right shoulder and hand, followed by the left knee and ankle. The modality with high II was freestyle skiing, which presents a injury each 0. High-level sport involves physical and psychological overexertion that can have a negative impact on the welfare of the athlete. University-level events help to ensure similar age and skill levels between participants who contributes to a fair contest and less risk of injury due to large variances in body morphology or skill level.
When holding a major sporting events, the actions of monitoring and analysing the athletes are recognised to be very important to reduce the occurrence of injuries and diseases. There are few studies on epidemiological data obtained in major international winter sports events, where environmental and changing weather conditions can influence the occurrence of injuries and diseases.
The objective of the present study was to analyse and describe the injuries and diseases suffered during the 27th Winter Sports Universiade held in February in Granada and Sierra Nevada, Spain. We are confident that the data gained from the study will be able to improve upon current practices of reducing the risk of injury and illness in future major sporting events, as the monitoring of illnesses and injuries is the first step in the prevention of these. Sports modalities that took place at the Winter Sports Universiade were: alpine skiing, snowboarding, freestyle skiing, figure skating, curling, ice hockey and short track speed skating.
The medical care records were collected from these modalities. For technical reasons, the cross-country skiing, Nordic combined, ski jumping and biathlon competitions were held in Slovakia. The rest of modalities were held in Granada, Spain.
The medical committee and health staff of the Universiade recorded the daily incidence of all injuries and illnesses that occurred in each of the sport disciplines. Data were collected for injuries and illnesses sustained during training and competition. Also, there was a follow-up on the diagnosis of the athletes who were treated in hospitals.
All the injuries were registered in the case of multiple incidents in which various parts of the body were involved. Prior to the start of competitions, the medical committee reported to the medical leaders of delegations from all participating countries the details of the healthcare system, control Speed dating granada 2015 and assistance delivery, and reference hospitals in case of evacuation.
At the outdoor competitions alpine skiing, snowboarding and freestyle skiingthere was a medical team on track with an ambulance, a mobile intensive care unit ICUa first aid point located in Borreguiles metres above sea level masland a complete medical clinic located in Pradollano maslequipped with four boxes of diagnosis tools and full assistance and an observation and stabilisation unit with three beds equipped with radiological installations. These teams medically stabilised the athletes before sending them to hospital, where the final diagnosis of the injuries and illnesses took place.
Figure skating, curling, ice hockey and short track speed skating were held indoor in Granada masl. Each covered pavilion had a medical team during training sessions and the competitions of each sport. They also had a mobile ICU and back-up medical staff. In the case of an accident or an illness, a standard control form was used in which the athlete's personal data were reflected. This standard control form contains several items as age, sex, nationality, sport, the injury type suffered, the treatment applied and the state of the athlete after the assistance, taking into consideration whether he could return to the competition or was sidelined for the event.
The injury diagnosis was made by doctors specialising in orthopaedic surgery, sports medicine and emergency medicine. All medical attention that prevented the athlete's participation in each of the sport modalities has been considered as an injury or a disease, as in similar articles. The information collected was: sport and sport discipline, athlete's sex, injury type, place and date of the event.
These data have not been used for any other purpose and will be destroyed once past the time established by law. Practical exposure time Pext of participations has been calculated according to speciality and sex. In ice hockey and figure skating, the execution time indicated in the rules of the competition was taken into consideration. And finally, in the specialities of curling and freestyle skiing score sportsa systematic observation was performed, resulting in a total Pext of each participant in both disciplines.
In each sport, the average exposure time has been calculated, obtained by the sum of the participants' time and their relationship with the of participations in each speciality. The of participations has been defined as the of times that an athlete is involved in competition. After obtaining the average exposure time, the risk of individual injury RIndInj has been estimated for each modality and defined as the practical exposure time before an injury occurs, in relation to the of times that an athlete participates in competition until there is an injury.
Finally, the injury index II was defined as the ratio between the total Pext and the of injuries by modality. The II would be established as the practice time h that elapsed before an injury took place. It should be noted that the lower the relative we obtain from this equation, the greater the risk of injury will be. Table 1 shows the of registered athletes in all the different sport modalities. One thousand one hundred and nine participants took part including both sexes. The sport in which there was the greatest of participants was ice hockey ; women; men. Speed dating granada 2015 modality with the least of participating athletes was curling 93; 46 women, 47 men.
Ice hockey presents the greatest total Pext during all the competition Freestyle skiing modality had the lowest total and average time of practical exposure 0. There were 68 injuries 6. The most harmful disciplines were: alpine skiing and ice hockey 18 injuries each; The disciplines that caused fewer injuries were curling five injuries; 7.
Men's snowboarding produced the highest incidence of injuries 11 injuries; Although alpine skiing produced 18 injuries, this only meant injury in A percentage of 1. There were no injuries in short track speed skating for women table 3figure 1. The relationship between exposure time and II shows that freestyle skiing showed the shortest time of exposure 0. There were no injuries in snowboarding and short track speed skating for women, so the exposure times indicated 3.
Therefore, it is not possible to determine a total II for these specialities. Table 4 indicates the II or the relationship between the total Pext and the of injuries by modality. The most frequent injuries were blunt traumas 21; Men show a higher incidence of injury 46; The head traumas, with and without loss of consciousness, were valued by the medical specialists according to the Glasgow Coma Scale.
The head, shoulder and right hand were the anatomical locations that suffered the most injuries nine injuries, A percentage of One surgery was performed on a female ice hockey athlete with an acromioclavicular dislocation. A female alpine skiing athlete, who suffered a right knee anterior cruciate ligament tear, deferred surgical treatment because she decided to be operated on in her country of origin.
Although it was not included in athletes' statistics, an ice hockey referee suffered a blunt subsection trauma on the right hand while he was warming up before a match, which produced a tear in a section of the third finger extensor tendon and required surgical intervention. Hospital admissions include two cases of head trauma without loss of consciousness a snowboard male and a freestyle skiing female practitionersone case of head Speed dating granada 2015 with loss of consciousness a man from alpine skiing and one case of facial trauma a man from ice hockey.
A hospital observation lasting 24 hours was undertaken in all cases. Medical services gave assistance to nine athletes 0.Speed dating granada 2015
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