Added: Damein Ulrey - Date: 05.12.2021 00:26 - Views: 39454 - Clicks: 2098
Main Text. Search by. Text Only Version. Image Gallery. In trying to reconstruct the history of African Americans in Coles County, the historian faces the problem of the paucity of historical records.
Clearly, African Americans do not exist in official historical records as the aboriginal Indians or the white settlers. Where they exist in records, one is only able to capture their history n fragments. This has much to do with the subordinate position blacks occupied in the evolution of American history and culture. Blacks were slaves. Since blacks are either missing or barely visible in official documents, how does the historian reconstruct their history and contributions to society?
One methodological tool which readily comes to mind is photography. According to Jon Prosser and Dona Schwartz. We can communicate the feeling or suggest the emotion imparted by activities, environments, and interactions.
And we can provide a degree of tangible detail, a sense of being there and a way o f knowing that may not readily translate into other symbolic modes of communication. So, despite the irksome complexity of traveling through contested territory, the new knowledge yielded by the innovative methods we suggest makes the journey beneficial.
For a minority group such as African Americans, whose history and experiences have been obscured by the dominant ethnic group, photography offers a valuable means of recovering the past. In some sense photographs communicate a form of knowledge which is open to interpretation by those who view them, but they cannot easily be ignored in terms of the truth they convey.
Photographs have also been used for both positive and negative purposes Omaha slave for dominant black woman relation to African Americans in the United States. As Deborah Willis has noted. The photographing of African Americans for personal collections, scientific studies, advertising purposes, or for general public use dates to Some photographers created images, specifically made for private collections, that idealized family life and notable individuals.
Other photographers found it more profitable to create a series of prejudicial and shocking photographs of their black subjects, provoking critical comments, favorable as well as adverse, from various communities. Many of these photographs were negative, insulting images of black Americans. While black images have been presented n a negative light in American society, photographs do also counter the stereotypical perceptions of African Americans.
They help to shed positive light on otherwise hidden aspects of African American life. Furthermore, photographic images do also liberate the mind by offering hitherto unknown facts and data. In addition, the point has to be made that offering a counter black image to prevailing negative stereotypes must not be seen only in terms of "the simple reduction of black representation to a "positive" image As Bell Hooks put it:.
Access and mass appeal have historically made photography a powerful location for the construction of an oppositional black aesthetic. In the world before the racial integration, there was a constant struggle on the part of black folks to create a counter-hegemonic world of images that stand as visual resistance, create an oppositional subculture within the framework of domination, recognize that the field of representation how we see ourselves, how others see us is a site of ongoing struggle. The photographic exhibition which gave rise to this book focused on the history of African Americans from the nineteenth century to the present.
The exhibition which was held at the Tarble Arts Center on the campus of Eastern Illinois University from January 25 to March 10,explored the accomplishments of African Americans. The images also addressed their everyday lives, social, religious, economic, political and cultural activities.
In economic terms, the exhibition spoke to the entrepreneurial role of African Americans in the building and development of the county and region. In addition, by using photographs of African Americans who have interacted with Eastern Illinois University, the Omaha slave for dominant black woman explored the role of the university in the education, training and employment of African Americans.
Furthermore, the exhibition highlighted the role of the African Americans as students, workers, educators, community builders and responsible citizens of the region. The physical settlement of Coles County by white settlers is dated to Historical records have it that Benjamin Parker was the first settler to build a log cabin in the area. The "log cabin was built on the east bank of the Embarass River, just opposite the place where Blakeman's mill was afterward erected, and was in what is now Hutton Township. Coles County was incorporated in At its inception, the county included what is now Cumberland and Douglas counties.
The county was named in honor of Edward Coles, the second Governor of Illinois who was elected to the position in Edward Coles was a native of Virginia. He was a rich slave-owner who migrated to Illinois with his slaves. On arrival he became a citizen of the state and then set free his slaves. A man who loved liberty, its fires lighted up his soul, and its benign influence dictated his action and inspired him with pure purposes and prompted him to noble deeds.
Of all other men, he demanded respect for his rights, and to the rights and personal liberty of all other men he accorded the same profound respect. On reaching Illinois and becoming a citizen of the State, he set his slaves all free, and, in addition, gave each head of a family among them acres of land.
Such was the law at that time, that a man setting a slave free in Illinois, must give a bond that it should never become a public charge. Thus fine he was never required to pay African Americans migrated into the region as slaves and free individuals about the same time as white settlers. One of the first known black families who settled in the county was Lewis James, his first wife Nancy, and their children. They might be settled in Brushy Fork sometime before because they were listed in the Federal Census of that year.
Duane Smith writes that, "in the Federal census, the first since Coles County was formed, the county recorded a population of over 9, people. Among those listed were 33 persons of color. While most of these were living in white households, Lewis James was an exception.
The James family was not only one of the first African American families of the area, but they were some of the earliest settlers in the region. As reported by Melinda Meyer, "In the Douglas County [note Douglas County was once part of Coles County] land records, a man named Isom Bryant is recorded as entering 80 acres to the east of the Negro cemetery inand his 40 acres to the west in His wife, Lucy Ann Minnis? Eleven other individuals whose ages ranged between 1 and 45 were also recorded to be in the precinct. In addition, byJoseph Martin and John Peyton were listed as landowners. One of the enduring institutions of this black community was a log church, Omaha slave for dominant black woman African Methodist Episcopal Church.
Another was a cemetery which today has a stone marker and a grave. It has also been reported that from about to in East Oakland Township, one "Ms. Berry had been left a widow, whit poverty and several young children for an inheritance.
Her effects then consisted of twenty acres of ground, her horse, Ned, a slave woman and her children. Sickness came, bread became scarce and the wolf looked in at the door. The slave woman and the horse did farming, and had it not been for the woman and the horse, her family would have come to absolute want.
Slaves had one priority at this time to get to freedom as a family. Having suffered agonies of separation from loved ones for decades, they wanted nothing so much as to gather together their families and support them by paid labor.
As the nation moved towards war, Kentucky moved into a state of confusion; and slaves began to escape to the north [as] families, instead of as individuals. At least in the first 20 years of this settlement, most of the people seem to be related. Other prominent black families were known to have migrated into Coles County in the late nineteenth century. They first settled in other parts of Illinois and Indiana before moving into Coles County. Along with their mother, they escaped through the underground railroad into Indiana.
In Indiana, Job married Mary E. Roberts and William Jefferson married Anna Walden. Both Job and Mary gave birth to ten children. It is said that four of the ten children died as infants. In they moved to Jasper County where they were involved in farming activities. An unknown of Peter's children died in Virginia. He later left Virginia with his surviving children to the Midwest in about The most prominent of their children was George Washington Estell. He was born on February 10, in Washington County, Virginia.
His first wife was named Ella Manuel, who was born on April 2, They had a son William James Estell on March 16, He married Mary Jane Kirkman. Writing on his family history, George Washington Estell stated among other things as follows:. My father belonged to the Cherokee Indian tribe. He was not a full-blooded Indian however as his mother was an English woman.
My own mother was a colored slave. At that time there was a great deal of wild Prairie land around here. There were some wild animals too, such as deer and wolves. Later we moved to a farm twelve miles south of Carmago. Then from Carmago we moved near Toledo. We lived there about six years farming most of the time. After leaving here we moved to Jasper County. Shortly after which we came to Mattoon.
We have resided in Mattoon ever since. His mother was named Mrs. Mattie Williams, who married Mr. Williams, Sr. The Williams are related to the Hopgoods by marriage. James and Roberta had a son named James and a daughter named Judith. In Charleston, one of those documented was "John Paxton, his wife Sarah, and child Eliza, who came sometime before Another prominent black family in Charleston was Mr. George Nash. George was born in Kentucky of African and Indian parentage. He left Kentucky for Illinois in the later part of the nineteenth century.Omaha slave for dominant black woman
email: [email protected] - phone:(111) 146-3994 x 9199
Black Studies (BLST)